printed   by   E.   Harding,

Frogmore   Lodge,   Windsor.




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   Germany was anciently possessed by a number of free and independent nations. In the year of the world 3400, Sigovese, a Gaulish prince, left Burgundy and with a colony of Bojens established himself on the bank of the Danube, where the names of Bojohemia Bohemia )and( Bojoaria( Bavaria) still recall that of the first colonists. About three centuries afterwards they undertook an expedition into Greece and Bythinia, and were succeeded in the country they abandoned by the Marcomanni.

A.   M.   3725.

iiA.   M.   3725
      The Marcomanni had till their emigration resided on the banks of the Rhine, and the frontiers of Gaul; that territory was now occupied by colonies of different nations, on which account they were called Allemanni, various men. The Cimbri and Jutlanders attempting to invade Italy were defeated by Marius in 3909, and forty years afterwards Julius Cesar at the head of the Roman legions, extended his victories into Germany which he divided into Germania Cisrhenana, and Germania Transrhenana.
A.   M.         3949

iiiA.   M.   3949
   The Romans could not so entirely subject the Germans to their power, but that they often attempted to shake off their yoke : hence the wars that deluged that country in blood for near three centuries. At length the people who dwelt between the Rhine, the Weser, and the Mein, and were most exposed to Roman incursions, convinced that union alone could insure their safety, leagued themselves together for their mutual defence, and took the appellation of Franks or Freemen.
A.   D.      240

ivA.   D.      240
   The Franks, though often defeated, succeeded at length in forming an establishment between the Rhine and the Meuse, from whence they afterwards invaded Gaul. The Allemanni, since called Suabians, followed their example, but with less success. Christianity was first planted in Germany in the first Century.         400

    The fifth century is memorable for the invasion of the Roman provinces by the Northern nations. The Vandals, Alains, Suabians, Angles, Saxons, Therulians, and Lombards, quitting Mecklenburg, Pomerania Prussia, Holstein, Sleswic, and Brandenbnrg, [lit.] over-ran and subdued the greatest part of the western Empire. The north of Germany thus, almost deserted, was repeopled by the Sclavonians, descendants of the Sarmatians and Scythians who advanced as far as the Elbe, and beyond Bohemia.         400

      The Franks subdued Gaul which took from them the name of France. Clovis completed the conquest and to repress the incursions of the Suabians and Thuringians, planted a colony of Franks in that part of the country since called Franconia. 534. His descendants not possessing the talents and energy of their ancestors, the royal authority was usurped by the Maires du Palais, who at length dethroned them and Pepin Heristel Maire du Palais was acknowledged king.

      He was the first king of the Carlovingian race. He defeated the king of the Lombards, and obliged him to relinquish the Exarchat of Ravenna, which he gave to the Holy See. He and his sons were declared Patricians of Rome, the highest dignity in the Empire He was successful in his wars against the Saxons, and the Duke of Bavaria, and died in 768 leaving his dominions to his two sons Charles and Carloman.         768

   Charles, more known by the name of Charlemagne, soon became sole possessor of the crown by the death of his brother Carloman. He subdued the Saxons, now the principal inhabitants of Germany, after a thirty years war, and converted them to Christianity, he also conquered the Lombards, and extended his dominion over the greatest part of Europe. In 800 he was proclaimed Emperor of the Romans, by the Pope, and the Roman people, thus reviving in his person the dignity of Emperor of the western Empire. Learning flourished under his patronage. He died after a glorious reign of 46 years, and was succeeded by his son Lewis le Debonnaire. 814

Lewis Ist le Debonnaire.
    In the earlier part of his reign he had divided his dominions with his three sons; but in 829 having given a share of them to his fourth son Charles the bald, the others revolted, and the remainder of his life was spent in warfare with them, in which he was twice deposed, but again restored to the supreme authority. He died near Mentz, as he was marching with an army to oppose his son Lewis the German.

      His sons were
1st. Lothario; Emperor, king of Italy, of Lorraine and of Burgundy.
2d. Pepin; king of Acquitaine, died before his Father.
3d. Lewis the German, king of Germany.
4th. Charles, the bald; king of France, and in 875 Emperor of the Romans.         840

Lothario Ist,
      Attempting to deprive his brothers of part of their dominions, they took up arms against him, and defeated him; after which a treaty of peace was concluded at Verdun, which forms a memorable epocha in the history of Germany, as from that time it obeyed Princes independent of the French monarchy. 843. Lothario divided his dominions between his three sons, giving the Empire and Italy to Lewis, the eldest. He then retired to a monastery, which he died soon after.

Lewis II.
   The reign of the Emperor Lewis 2d. confined to Italy offers no remarkable events. In Germany his Uncle Lewis the German created Dukes. Traoulphe was the first Duke of Thuringia, and Leopold the great, of Saxony ; the latter dignity became in some degree hereditary. The Emperor Lewis 2d. declared Carloman eldest son of Lewis the German his heir, and died in 875.

   Charles the bald, king of France, disregarding the disposition his nephew, the late Emperor, had made of his dominions, seized on the kingdom of Italy; he was elected Emperor, and crowned by Pope Iohn VIII. He died of poison administered to him by his physician, a Jew, and was succeeded in the Empire by his Nephew, Charles the fat.         877

   Lewis the German( third son of Lewis le Debonnaire king of France and Emperor) was king of Germany. At his death in 876 he divided his dominions between his three sons : Ist Carloman, king of Italy, had Bavaria. He died in 880 leaving only an illegitimate son Arnold, who was afterwards king of Germany and Emperor. 2d. Lewis 111, had Saxony; he seized on Bavaria on the death of his Brother Carloman, and acquired also the kingdom of Lorraine. He died in 882, 3d Charles the fat had Suabia: he succeeded to the kingdom of Italy in 880, and to those of Saxony and Lorraine in 882 on the death of his brother Lewis; thus uniting in his person all his fathers dominions. He was crowned Emperor in 881.

      The Emperor Charles the Fat, was declared king of France, Charles the simple, (youngest son of Lewis le Begue king of France, and heir to that monarchy on the death of his two elder brothers) being too young to reign. His dominions were now as extensive as those of Charlemagne, but he wanted talents to govern them. He concluded an ignommious treaty with the Normans, and his conduct producing universal contempt, he was deposed, and reduced to so much poverty as to subsist on the liberality of the Archbishop of Mentz. He died in the Abbey of Reichenau, to which he had retired, in 888.

      The deposition of Charles the fat was followed by great revolutions. Charles the simple, king of France, was by right heir to all his dominions; but Italy and Germany were separated for ever from the French Monarchy. Arnold, an illegitimate son of the Carloman king of Bavaria was elected king of the Germans, and in 896 Emperor of the Romans. He died in 900 leaving an infant son Lewis, who was chosen king of the Germans.         900

Lewis IV.
   Being only seven years old when he succeeded his father, the Archbishop of Mentz, and Otho Duke of Saxony were appointed regents. He died at the age of eighteen, and is the last king of Germany of the Carlovingian race. In that family the crown had been disposed of by the reigning prince with the consent of the nobles, but it now became elective, and from this time the Electors of Germany derive their right of chusing the Emperor: that title is not however in general annexed to the sovereigns of Germany till in 962, when Otho the Great acquired Italy, and was crowned by the Pope.         911

Conrad 1st, of Franconia.
      Otho Duke of Saxony having declined the crown, Conrad Count of Franconia was elected. His reign was one continued scene of troubles tho' he took every measure to support his authority, and to preserve the tranquillity of Germany. One rebellion succeeded another, and to complete his misfortunes the Huns or Hungarians invaded the empire and obliged him to purchase an ignominious peace. He died in 919 recommending to the Germanic body, Henry Duke of Saxony, (the son of Otho to whom he owed the crown) as his successor.  919

    Henry Duke of Saxony (surnamed the Fowler) was elected with the unanimous consent of the assembled states; and was the ablest statesman, and greatest prince of Europe in his time. He created marquisses to defend the frontiers, and fortified the principal towns in the empire. He defeated the Hungarians, and rescued his country from the tribute they had obliged his predecessor to pay them. He died as he was marching to the conquest of Italy in 936.

Otho 1st, the Great of Saxony.
      The Diet assembled at Aix la Chapelle unanimously elected Otho to succeed his Father. He deserved the title of Great by the wisdom of his government, and the splendor of his conquests. He obliged the Danes to pay him tribute, and subdued the Bohemians, requiring both nations to embrace Christianity. Towards the end of his reign he conquered Italy and was crowned Emperor by the Pope. He caused his son Otho to be elected and crowned Emperor, and died in 973.

Otho 2d of Saxony.
   He was surnamed the Sanguinary on account of the blood spilt under his reign. In Germany several nobles rebelled, but he reduced them in a short time : Denmark and Bohemia felt his power, and Rome by new crimes offered a theatre to his justice. Crescentius revived the project of restoring that republic, and caused many cruelties to be committed; but the Emperor marching into Italy chastised the nobles. He died at Rome while preparing to be revenged on the Greeks and Saracens, who had defeated his army in Calabria in 983.

   Otho 3d, had been elected emperor during the life of his father, and was still a child when he succeeded him. His minority was disturbed by troubles both in Germany and Italy, but he no sooner took the reins of govenment into his own hands, than he restored order in all his dominions. He was a brave and enterprizing prince: he defeated the Danes, and entered into an alliance with Eric king of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, on condition that the Gospel should be preached in those countries. Crescentius having again rebelled, Otho took Rome by assault, and punished the rebels. After having expelled the Saracens out of Italy, he died of poison given him by the widow of Crescentius who was disappointed at his not marrying her.

Henry 2d, the Lame.
      There were many competitors for the empire on the death of Otho 3d, who left no issue. Henry the Lame, Duke of Bavaria, grandson, to Henry the Fowler was elected. He quelled many disturbances both in Germany and Italy, and was Crowned, with his wife Cunegunda, by the Pope at Rome in 10I4. Cloyed with success, or weary of the toils of governing, he would have retired to a monastery, but was prevailed on to remain on the throne. He continued to prosper to the end of his life. He died in 1024, and was, in 1I52 Canonized by Pope Eugenius 3d.         I024

Conrad 2d, the Salic.
      Great disputes arose on the death of Henry II, but at length Conrad the Salic Duke of Franconia was elected. Like his predecessors he had to oppose revolts in Germany and Italy. In I034 he inherited Transjurane Burgundy of Rodolph the last king; tho' small in extent, it was important, as it included the Swiss, the Grison, Provence, and other provinces. He was esteemed a just, a generous and magnanimous prince. He caused his son Henry to be elected his successor and died in I039.

Henry 3d, the Black.
    In the first years of his reign he was successful in his wars in Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary. Several factions distracted Rome and Italy, different Popes were elected, but Henry, who exercised absolute sway in that country, deposed them all, and nominated one of his own choice. The Normans having taken Apulia and Calabria, were invested with the sovereignty of those territories by Henry. He caused his son to be elected his successor, and died in I056.

Henry 4th, the Great.
    Unfortunately for Henry 1V, he reigned at the period when the Pope began to aim at absolute sovereignty over all the princes of Christendom; and tho' he exerted the courage and abilities with which he was amply endowed to extricate himself, he became their victim. He was first excommunicated by Gregory V11, who had forbid him to grant ecclesiastical preferments ( the Investiture) he submitted to do penance and received absolution; but was again excommunicated: schism and confusion pervaded the empire even, his own son Conrad rebelled against him, and after his death Henry (his

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second son and king of the Romans) also revolted; and having treacherously made his father prisoner, caused him to be deposed, and himself to be elected in his stead. Henry 1V, was reduced to the greatest poverty; he died in 1106, and his inhuman son even denied him Christian burial, till five years afterwards when he had himself quarrelled with the Pope.


Henry 5th.
      No sooner was Henry V. established on the throne, than he maintained the right of Investiture in opposition to which he had taken up arms against his father. To support this claim he even marched into Italy and made the Pope Pascal 11, prisoner The dispute continued till 1122, when it was decreed in a council that Bishops and Abbots should be elected by the Monks and Canons, in the presence of the Emperor, or his ambassador, and that he should invest them with their temporal rights. Henry was a wise, politic and resolute prince. He married Matilda, daughter to Henry I. king of England and died without issue in 1I25.

Lothario 2d.
   Henry V.leaving no issue, it was expected that the empire would be conferred on one of his nephews, either Conrad Duke of Franconia or Frederick Duke of Suabia, his brother,( of Hohenstauffen) but by the intrigues of the Archbishop of Mentz, Lothario of Saxe Supplemburgh was elected. He subdued the Bohemians, and by force of arms put an end to the schism which then reigned in the Church: he drove Roger Duke of Apulia and king of Sicily, who had supported the Anti-pope, out of Italy. He ordered justice to be administred throughout

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the Empire according to the Justinian Code, a copy of which had lately been discovered. The reign of the House of Franconia in Germany is remarkable for the States extending their power at the expence of that of the Emperor. Lothario died in


Conrad 3d.
      Conrad of Hohenstauffen, Duke of Franconia, was elected Emperor, tho' he had for competitor Henry the haughty, Duke of Bavaria; who, incensed at this preference, refused to give up the imperial treasure and regalia. Henry was summoned to the Diet, but not appearing he was put to the ban of the Empire and deprived of the greatest part of his dominions. He died as he was taking up arms to reinstate himself, but his brother Guelph carried on the war in favour of Henry the Lion his son: from him derives the name of Guelphs which was long given to the

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enemies of the Emperors, while their party was distinguished by that of Ghibelins, from the village of Hieghibelin where Frederick Duke of Suabia, Conrad's General, was born. Peace was re-established in II4I and Conrad died in I152.

Frederick 1st.
   Frederick Barbarossa, Duke of Suabia, was unanimously elected to succeed his uncle Conrad on the imperial throne. His reign was involved in troubles which it required all his courage and capacity to surmount. The Italians particularly the Milanese frequently revolted, and availing themselves of a schism in the Church, when two Popes were elected, espoused the cause of him the Emperor would not acknowledge. In Germany, Henry the Lion, always turbulent, excited new disturbances, and the whole Empire became a prey to the parties of the Guelphs and the Ghibelins. Frederick subdued all his enemies. and restored tranquillity throughout his dominions. Towards the end of his reign he engaged in a Crusade, and died in Asia in 1189.

      Henry 6th, succeeded to the crown without any new election, having during the life of Frederick his father been chosen and crowned king of the Romans, a title, from this time given to the acknowledged heir of the empire. He had great talents for governing, but tarnished his reputation by the cruelty and perfidy with which he acted towards the Sicilians, whose crown he claimed in right of his wife Constantia, daughter of Roger king of Sicily. The Empress herself, shocked at his cruelty, is said to have poisoned him. He died at Messina, as he was preparing to embark on an expedition to the Holy Land in 1197.

      On the death of Henry VI, his brother Philip was appointed regent during the minority of his son Frederick already elected king of the Romans, but being obnoxious to the Popes for having withstood their encroachments, Innocent I11, who then filled the Papal Chair, caused first Berthold Duke of Zeringen, and afterwards Otho Duke of Brunswick( youngest son of Henry the Lion ) to be chosen Emperor: the greatest number of the German Princes, however, asserted their rights, and placed Philip on the throne. A war ensued in which Philip was successful. He was assassinated by the Count Palatine of the Rhine, in consequence of a private quarrel in 1208.

Otho 4th.
   Otho of Brunswick was re-elected Emperor on the death of Philip, and by concessions which he made to the Holy See, procured himself to be crowned by Innocent 11I, but his conduct soon proved that he had only temporized, for he claimed all right formerly possessed by the Emperors and seized on Apulia; he was excommunicated, and Frederick I1, king of the Romans, of Sicily and of Naples elected Emperor in his stead in 1212. Otho was obliged to submit, but to be revenged, he joined with the Count of Flanders in attacking Philip Augustus king of France (the ally of Frederick) they were defeated at Bouvenes. He then retired to Brunswick where he died in 1216, but his reign ends in 1212.

Frederick 2d.
    Frederick had been educated under the guardianship of the Popes: he began his reign by confirming the Concordat of 1I22. which granted great privileges to the Church, and promising to engage in a Crusade; but the cares of government having obliged him to delay fulfilling that promise, the Pope excommunicated him, and hostilities were renewed between the Guelphs and the Ghibelins. Tho' Frederick afterwards went to the Holy-land, where by treaty he obtained the cession of Jerusalem and other cities to the Christians, yet he could not appease the Roman Pontiff, who not only deposed him,

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but caused another Emperor to be elected, and preached a Crusade against him; civil war now raged more furiously than ever. Frederick died at Naples in I250. His second wife was Iolanda of Brienne, heiress to the king of Jerusalem, which title Frederick assumed, and it has ever after been borne by the kings of Sicily I250.

Conrad 4th.
      On the death of Frederick II. his son Conrad 1V, already king of the Romans, was acknowledged emperor by the Ghibelins, while the Guelphs supported the claim of William of Holland whom they had chosen. Italy and Germany were torn by civil war. Conrad died of poison administered to him by his illegitimate brother Mainfroi in 1254. William Count of Holland remained sole Emperor on the death of Conrad 1V, but reigned only two years, being killed in a war he had undertaken against the Frieslanders in I256.

Richard Earl of Cornwall,
   The civil wars had so much reduced the imperial authority that the Princes of Germany now acquired great power. On the death of William of Holland, one party elected Richard Earl of Cornwall brother to Henry II1, king of England, and another Alphonso king of Castile both with the hope of being enriched by the treasures of these Princes. Alphonso tho' he accepted the dignity, did not come to take possession of it and Richard was crowned Emperor. He was little esteemed in Germany and passing the greatest part of his reign in England, the administration of justice was neglected, and anarchy and confusion reigned throughout the Empire. He died in 1272.

   The death of Richard of Cornwall was followed by an Interregnum which some historians date from 1259, when he began to reside in England. Germany was now a prey to petty wars, robberies, and murders. The most remarkable events during this period, are, the League entered into by the Nobility for their mutual defence, the celebrated Hanseatic League formed by the principal commercial towns, for their protection against the encroachments of the great Lords, the establishment of the Electoral Colleges, and the exclusion which the great officers gave to the other Princes of the Empire in the election of the emperors. 1273

Rodolph 1st.
   To put an end to the anarchy which had so long reigned in Germany, Rodolph of Hapsburg was placed on the imperial throne. He had spent his youth partly at the court of Ottocaras king of Bohemia, as grand Marshall, and partly in the service of the cities of Zurich and Basle whose troops he commanded ; his valour, sagacity and probity made him worthy of the dignity now conferred on him, and he raised the empire from a state of misery and confusion, to the enjoyment of peace, polity and affluence. The king of Bohemia refusing to acknowledge

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him as Emperor, and having also seized on the Dutchies of Austria Stiria and Carniola, was obliged to submit, to do homage for his kingdom, and to relinquish the province he had usurped, with which Albert, the Emperor's eldest son was invested : hence the rise of the House of Austria. Rodolph died in 129I.

   Notwithstanding Rodolph's popularity he could not obtain that his son Albert( whose avarice, haughtiness, and ambition were well known to the Electors )should be chosen king of the Romans. After an interval of nine months the imperial crown was confered on Adolphus Count of Nassau, in whom a tyrant was not feared. His reign was a continued scene of troubles of which Albert profited, and leaguing himself with some of the Electors, Adolphus was deposed by them and Albert elected in his place. Adolphus defended his right at the head of his troops, and was killed at the battle of Gelheim by the hand of his rival, in I298.

Albert 1st.
   Albert not satisfied with his former election, caused himself to be again chosen Emperor. At first he found an enemy in Pope Boniface V111, with whom he was afterwards reconciled; he was also opposed in his ambitious projects by some of the Electors; but the most remarkable event in his reign is the rise of the Swiss Republic to which he gave occasion by the tyranny with which he caused Switzerland to be governed, with the view of exciting a revolt, that he might form a principality in that country in favour of his son Rodolph. Albert was marching to be revenged on the Swiss, when he was assassinated by his Nephew Iohn whom he had deprived of his patrimony. I308.

Henry 7th
      The hatred in which Albert I was held prevented his son Frederick from being chosen to succeed him. Henry Count of Luxemburgh was elected. Having settled the affairs of Germany, he turned his attention to Italy where the animosity of the Guelphs and Ghibelins was greater than ever, tho' no longer a struggle between the parties of the Popes, and the Emperors, but between faction and faction. After much trouble he re-established the imperial authority in that country. His son married the heiress of the kingdom of Bohemia, and was father to the Emperor Charles IV, Henry died in 1313.

Lewis 5th
      The death of Henry VI1, involved Germany in new troubles; one party elected Lewis Duke of Bavaria, and another Frederick the fair, Duke of Austria, but Lewis defeated his rival and making him prisoner at the battle of Muldorf in 1322 remained sole Emperor. His reign was disturbed by the persecutions of the Popes. Iohn 11 claimed for the Holy See the right of confirming the election of the Emperors; Benedict X11, supported the same claim, but the German Princes exasperated at such ambitious demands, assembled a Diet in which they established the

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famous Constitution which irrevocably frees the German Empire from all Papal Jurisdiction. Clement VI still more violent than his predecessors gained some of the electors who chose Charles of Luxemburgh king of Bohemia Emperor: A civil war was the consequence, during which Lewis died in I347.

   Charles the IV tho' not immediately acknowledged Emperor by the opposite party, soon purchased their approbation by concessions and bribes. Tho' learned and a good prince he was a weak emperor; his conduct in Italy where he went to be crowned at Rome was marked by pusilanimity. The most memorable event in his reign is the constitution that was made at the Diet of Nuremberg known by the name of the Golden Bull, by which the manner of electing the Emperors was regulated, and the number of Electors fixed to seven, the Archbishops of Mentz,

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Treves, and Cologne, the king of Bohemia as Great Cup bearer, the Count Palatine, Grand Seneschal or Judge, the Duke of Saxony Grand Marshall, and the Margrave of Brandenburgh Great Chamberlain Charles died in I378.

    Wenceslaus succeeded his father Charles IV. Few Princes have been more decried in history, and few have experienced greater vicissitudes of fortunes, the former seems exaggerated, and the latter partly owing to his own misconduct, and partly to the troublesome times he lived in, when Europe was divided by the great schism which then reigned in the Church. He was twice made prisoner by his own subjects, and afterwards being accused of alienating the domains of the Empire and other misdemeanors, he was deposed by the three Ecclesiastical

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Electors( gained by Pope Boniface 1X who was incensed against Wenceslaus for having summoned him to abdicate in order to put an end to the Schism ) and the Elector Palatine, who joined them, tho' the other Electors refused their consent. I400. The deposed Emperor retired to his kingdom of Bohemia where he reigned till his death in I418.

Robert Elector Palatine.
   The four Electors who had deposed Wenceslaus, chose Frederick of Brunswick in his room, but he being assassinated, the imperial dignity was conferred on Robert Elector Palatine, who thus reaped the advantage of having contributed to depose his predecessor. He marched into Italy to dispossess the Visconti of Milan, which had been ceded to them by Wenceslaus, but was defeated, neither was he successful in his attempts to restore peace to the Church. Iohn Huss and Jerome of Prague, at this time preached the doctrines of Wickliff in Bohemia. Robert died in I410.

  Sigismund king of Hungary Elector of Brandenburgh, & (on the death of his brother Wenceslaus) king of Bohemia succeeded Robert. His first care was to restore peace to the Church, which was effected at the Council of Constance in I418, Iohn Huss, and Jerome of Prague were condemned to death at the Council: their followers headed by Ziska waged a furious war in Bohemia where peace was not restored till in I436, when many concessions were granted them. Sigismund sold the Electorate of Brandenburgh to the Burgrave of Nuremberg, and that of Saxony to the Margrave of Misnia, both have continued in those Houses ever since. Sigismund bequeathed all his inheritance to his son in law Albert of Austria and died in 1437.

      Albert of Austria was chosen Emperor. The States of Hungary and Bohemia not esteeming Sigismunds will in his favour a sufficient title to the crown of those realms, conferred it on him by their election. The only memorable event in his reign was an expedition into Bulgaria against the Turks. From his time the House of Austria has continued in possession of the imperial Crown till the extinction of the male line in 1746. Albert died in 1439.

Frederick 3d
      After much deliberation the Imperial crown was conferred on Frederick of Austria, Duke of Stiria, second Cousin to Albert 11. No emperor reigned longer and none more ingloriously. Timid, irresolute, deceitful, and avaricious, he reaped only damage and disgrace from the civil wars he was engaged in with the Bohemians, Hungarians and Austrians. During his reign the Turks made great progress in Europe, and took Constantinople; a crusade was proposed against them, but without success, owing to the avarice of the Emperor, and

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the honour of checking their progress is due to Iohn Hunniades, and George Castriot surnamed Scanderbeg. Frederick conferred his title of Archduke on the Princes of his house and died in 1493. He married Eleanor daughter to the king of Portugal by whom he had issue.
   Maximilian who succeeded him.
   Cunegonda, married to Albert the Wise Duke of Bavaria. I493

Maximilian 1st.
   Maximilian was brave, a lover of Justice and patron of literature, but these good qualities were obscured by his inconstancy and prodigality. He was involved in many wars, with little advantage to himself ; he engaged in the celebrated League of Cambray with the Pope and the kings of France and Spain, in which he and the king of France were the dupes of their allies. Having never been crowned by the Pope, he bore only the title of Roman Emperor Elect. During his reign Germany was divided into circles, and the Imperial Chamber and Aulic Council were established. His ambition led him to attempt being elected Pope. He died in I5I9

   He married 1st, Mary daughter and heiress to Charles the bold, Duke of Burgundy and Sovereign of the Netherlands, by whom he had,
First Philip, who died before him, married Joan heiress of the kingdoms of Castile and Arragon and left issue.
Ist Charles Emperor.
2d Ferdinand Emperor.
3d Eleanor married 1st Emanuel
   king of Portugal, 2d Francis 1st
    king of France.
4th Isabella married Christian king
   of Denmark.
5th Mary married Lewis king of Hungary and Bohemia.

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6th Catharine married John king
   of Portugal.
Secondly Margaret married 1st John of Castile son to the king of Arragon, 2dly Philibert Duke of Savoy. He married 2dly Blanch Mary, daughter to Galeazzo Sforza Duke of Milan. 15I9

Charles 5th.
      The Archduke Charles( grandson to Maximilian )and Francis I, king of France were candidates for the Empire; Charles was elected; he was a great Statesman and general, but ambitious, crafty, and treacherous. His arms were victorious in Italy where Francis I and Pope Clement VII were his prisoners. The Reformation first preached by Luther in 1517 had made great progress in Germany. Charles, tho' determined to crush it, was long obliged to temporize being surrounded by foreign foes, but no sooner was he freed from them than he attacked the Prince who protected it. The Elector of Saxony and the Landgrave

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of Hesse were made prisoners, the electorate of the former was bestowed on his perfidious Cousin Maurice, 1547, but Charles usurping despotic sway in Germny, Maurice himself revolted against him, and became the deliverer of his country. By the treaty of Passau 1552, the Protestant Religion was established, and the liberties of Germany confirmed. Charles resigned the imperial crown to his brother Ferdinand in I558.

   He married Isabella daughter to Emanuel king of Portugal and had issue.
Ist Philip king of Spain.
2d Mary married the Emperor
   Maximilian 11.
3d Joan married John hereditary
   Prince of Portugal.
4th Margaret married Ist Alexander of Medicis first Prince of Florence. 2dly Octavius Farnese Duke of Parma.

      The short reign of Ferdinand 1, was chiefly employed in endeavouring to conciliate the differences in religion ; he obtained from the Pope some indulgences for the protestants of Germany, but he died before he could see the effect of his good intentions in 1564. He married Anne daughter to Ladislas king of Hungary and Bohemia,( which kingdoms she inherited on the death of her brother,) and had issue
1st Maximilian who suceeded [lit.] him,
2d Ferdinand, sovereign of the Tirol
3d Charles Duke of Stiria.
4th Elizabeth married Sigismund
   king of Poland.
5th Anne married Albert Duke of

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6th Mary married William Duke
   of Juliers and Cleves.
7th Magdalen a Nun.
8th Catherine married 1st Francis Duke of Mantua 2dly Sigismund king of Poland widower of her sister Elizabeth.
9th Eleanor married William Duke
   of Mantua.
xth Margaret a Nun.
xith Barbara married Alphonso
   Duke of Ferrara.
xiith Helen a Nun.
xiith Joan married Francis, graud [lit.]
   Duke of Tuscany 1564.

    Maximilian 1I, had been elected king of the Romans during the reign of his father, he was engaged in a war with the Turks with whom he concluded a truce for twelve years; from which time Germany enjoyed tranquillity under his mild government. He died in I576.
He married Mary daughter to the Emperor Charles V, and had issue
1st Rodolph who succeeded him.
2d Ernest Governor of the Nether-
3d Matthias afterwards Emperor.
4th Maximilian Grand Master of
   the Teutonick Order.

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5th Albert.
6th Anne married Philip 1I, king
   of Spain.
7th Elizabeth married Charles 1X,
   king of France.
8th Margaret a Nun.
Several other Children who died young.

Rodolph 11
      Was more occupied with the heavens than the earth, being devoted both to astronomy and astrology. The equity of his government compensated for its weakness. The Protestants to secure and extend their privilege formed the Evangelical Union, while the Catholics to protect their ancient faith established the Catholic League. 1609. The archduke Matthias who had defended Hungary against the Turks, and protected the protestants, was chosen king of that country, and became also master of Austria, Moravia, and Bohemia, the Emperor, to avoid

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a civil war confirmed to him those usurpations, he endeavoured to prevent his being elected Emperor, but without success, the imperial crown being confirmed on him on the death of Rodolph in 1612.

   Was first occupied on his accession with opposing the Turks, but no sooner had he concluded a peace with them than he pulled off the mask he had till then worn to deceive the Protestants. He caused his cousin Ferdinand Duke of Stiria to be elected king of Bohemia, and united so firmly in a family compact, that the Evangelical Union was alarmed; the Hungarians and Bohemians revolted, and a furious civil war was kindled, that raged during thirty years, and was not extinguished till the peace of Westphalia in I648. Matthias died in I619

Ferdinand 2d
      The Empire was conferred on Ferdinand Duke of Stiria, tho' not with the general consent of the Electors. The Elector Palatine, who had accepted of the crown of Bohemia from the insurgents, was totally defeated, and Ferdinand finding himself possessed of absolute power, aimed at reducing the electoral princes to the condition of Grandees of Spain, and the Bishops to that of imperial Chaplains. His ambitious projects were checked by the protestants who allied themselves with France and with Gustavus Adolphus king of Sweden, who gloriously defended their cause in person, and fell tho' victorious at the battle of Lutzen in 1632. The war

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was continued with various success till in I635 when the Evangelical Union concluded the Peace of Prague, but hostilities were still carried on by the Swedes and French
Ferdinand II, died in 1637.
He married 1st Mary Ann daughter to the Duke of Bavaria by whom he had
1st Ferdinand his successor.
2d Mary Ann married to the Elector
   of Bavaria.
3d Cecilia married Ladislas 1V,
   king of Poland.
4th Leopold Charles Bishop of
Second Eleonora Gonzaga daughter to the Duke of Mantua. 1637

Ferdinand 3d
      Under Ferdinand 1I1, who succeeded his father on the imperial throne, the war was prosecuted with inveteracy, and with brilliant successes, particularly on the side of the Allies. Negociations to terminate it had begun in 1644, but it was not till in 1648 that the Emperor, at length becoming sensible of the necessity of peace, concluded the Treaty of Westphalia, with France, Sweden and the Protestants. This Treaty is regarded as a fundamental law of the Empire. and as the basis of all subsequent Treaties. Ferdinand died in 1657

   He married first Mary Ann daughter to Philip I11, king of Spain by
   whom he had.
1st Ferdinand 1V, king of the Ro-
   mans, who died before him.
2d Leopold who succeeded him.
3d Mary Ann married Philip 1V,
   king of Spain.
Three other Children who died
Second Mary Leopoldina daughter to the Archduke of Tirol, by whom he had Charles Joseph Bishop of Passau and Grand Master of the
   Teutonick Order.
Third Eleanor Gonzaga daughter to the Duke of Mantua, and had issue.
Ist Eleanor Mary married first Michael king of Poland. Second
   Charles Duke of Lorrain.
2d Mary Ann married John William Elector Palatine. 1657

Leopold Ist.
   The Electors jealous of the power of the House of Austria, deliberated some time before they elected the Archduke Leopold Emperor. His reign was disturbed by the wars the ambition of Lewis XIV, occasioned, during which Germany, but particularly the Palatinate was ravaged by the French Troops. The first war was terminated by the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle 1669, the second by that of Nimeguen, I678, and the third by that of Riswick. 1697. The Hungarians revolted and called the Turks to their assistance who laid siege to Vienna, but were defeated by John Sobieski king of

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Poland 1683. the Turks again attacked the empire in 1686, and were totally defeated by Prince Eugene. The succession to the Spanish crown gave rise to a new war in 1701, in which all Europe took part. Leopold claimed it in favour of his second son Charles, and Lewis X1V, for his second Grand-son Philip, while it was carrying on with brilliant success by the Imperialists and their british allies, Leopold died in 1705.

   He married 1st, Margaret Theresa daughter to Philip IV, king of Spain; by whom he had.
Mary Antoinetta, married Maxmilian Emanuel Elector of Bavaria.
2dly Claude Felicite only daughter to the Arch Duke Ferdinand Count
   of Tirol.
3dly Eleonora Madalena of Neubourg daughter to the Count Pala-
   tine of Neubourg, by whom he had.
Ist Joseph who succeeded him.
2d Charles proclaimed king of
   Spain, afterwards Emperor.
3d Mary Elizabeth, Governess of
   the Netherlands.
4th Mary Anne married John V,
   king of Portugal.
other Children who died young.

Joseph 1st.
      The death of Leopold made no change in the system of the confederates, his son Joseph who now ascended the imperial throne possessed greater vigour and abilities and the war was carried on with so much success that Lewis X1V, offered the most humiliating concessions to obtain peace, but nothing less than that he should assist with his troops in driving his grand-son out of Spain could satisfy the Allies, and this was a condition, Lewis, reduced as he was would not submit to. Fortunately for him an unexpected event gave a new turn to the politics of Europe; this was the sudden

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death of the Emperor Joseph, he was succeeded in his hereditary dominions, and in the Empire by his Brother Charles, who had so long contended for the Spanish crown.
He married Wilhelmina Amelia of Brunswick, daughter to John Frederick Duke of Brunswick, by
   whom he had.
1st Maria Josepha married to Frederick Augustus 111, king of Poland and Elector of Saxony.
2d Mary Amelia married Charles Elector of Bavaria Emperor in 1740.

Charles 6th.
    The accession of Charles VI, and a change in the British ministry accelerated a general pacification, hostilities however still continued till in I7I4, when peace was concluded at Utrecht. Two years afterwards Charles entered into a war with the Turks in which Prince Eugene gained the battle of Belgrade : peace was restored in I7I8. The election of a king of Poland gave rise to a new continental war in 1733, in which the Emperor supported the Elector of Saxony, who was elected in preference to Stanislaus Leczinsky father in law to Lewis XV, king of France; it was

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of short duration. The most remarkable event in the conclusion of Charles's reign was the pragmatic Sanction, by which he secured the succession of his hereditary dominions to his Daughters, in default of Male heirs. He died in 1740.
He married Elizabeth Christina of Brunswick Blankenburg, by whom
   he had.
Ist Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, married to Francis Stephen of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany, elected Emperor
   in 1745.
2dly Mary Anne, Governess of the Netherlands married Prince Charles of Lorraine brother to the Emperor Francis I.

Charles 7th
    On the death of Charles V1, his daughter Maria Theresa took possession of the vast inheritance he had secured to her by the pragmatic sanction, which had been guaranteed by almost all the Powers of Europe; but she was soon attacked by Frederick 11, king of Prussia who claimed part of Silesia, and Charles Elector of Bavaria who was supported in his pretensions on Bohemia by France: the arms of the allies were at first successful, Charles was crowned king of Bohemia and elected Emperor, but the Queen lost not courage, assisted by Great Britain; she recovered her dominions, which on the death of the Emperor Charles V11, were confirmed to her by the Peace she concluded with his son. I745

Francis Ist.
   Tho' vigorously opposed by the House of Bourbon, the Queen of Hungary obtained the object of her wish by the elevation of her Husband Francis Grand Duke of Tuscany to the imperial throne, peace was restored to Germany by the treaties of Breslaw and of Dresden, but war continued to rage in Flanders and in Italy, till in 1748, when a general pacification took place. the ambition of the Empress Queen, who was anxious to recover Silesia from the king of Prussia, involved the Empire in a new war, in 1756 in which France was her Ally, while Great Britain was that of Frede-

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rick ; many very glorious battles. were fought during the seven years it continued. It was terminated by the Peace of Hubertsberg in 1763. Francis I, died in 1765.
By his wife Maria Theresa Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and Sovereign of the Netherlands, he had issue.


1st Joseph Benedict Augustus, his
2d Peter Leopold, Grand Duke of
   Tuscany afterwards Emperor.
3d Ferdinand Duke of Brisgau in
4th Maximilian Elector of Cologne
5th Mary Ann Josephina, Abbess
   of Prague.
6th Mary Christina, married the
   Duke of Saxe Teschen.
7th Mary Elizabeth Josepha.
8th Mary Amelia Josepha married
   the Duke of Parma.
9th Mary Caroline married the king
   of Naples.
10th Maria Antoinetta married
   Lewis XV1, king of France.

Joseph 2d.
    Succeeded his father on the imperial throne, and was admitted by his Mother as co-regent of her dominions. He laid claim to Bavaria on the death of the Elector without Male heirs in I777, but being resolutely opposed by the king of Prussia he accepted a compromise. In 1780 he succeeded his Mother. He had the welfare of his subjects at heart, and made many alterations in the government to promote it, but his love of innovation involved him in difficulties he had neither perseverance or vigour of mind to surmount ; of this number are the pre-

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cipatate abolition of religious houses, and the changes he made in the judical proceedings in the Netherlands and which excited a revolt. In 1789 he attacked the Porte, but the fatigues of the campaign, and the unhealthiness of the Season threw him into a decline of which he died in 1790.

Leopold 2d.
   He succeeded his brother in his hereditary dominions and was elected Emperor of the Romans by the name of Leopold 11. He concluded a peace with the Porte, and quelled the revolt in the Netherlands. His short reign is marked by many wise regulations respecting trade, and the admission to religious houses. He formed a coalition with Prussia to check the progress of the revolution in France, but died before his troops took the field, in 1792.
   He married Mary Louisa of Parma, and had issue.
1st Francis who succeeded him.

2d Ferdinand Elector of Saltz-
3d Charles.
4th Joseph Anthony Palatine of
5th Anthony Victor Joseph Grand
   Master of the Teutonick order.
6th John Baptist Joseph.
7th Regnier Joseph.
8th Lewis Joseph.
9th Rodolph Iohn Joseph Regnier.
10th Mary Josepha Theresa Char-
lotte, married to Prince Anthony
   of Saxony.
11th Mary Ann Ferdinanda, Ab-
   bess of Prague.
12th Mary Clementina Josepha married the Prince Royal of Naples and died in 1800.

Francis 2d.
    On the death of Leopold I1, his eldest son Francis succeeded him, and was elected Emperor. In 1804 he added to his other titles that of Emperor of Austria. He married Ist Elizabeth Sister to the Elector of Wurtemberg and secondly, Mary Theresa Caroline daughter to Ferdinand 1V, king of Sicily.