HON. M.R.I.A., F.S.A., M.R.S.N.A., ETC.


In his hand he bore that singular abacus. IVANHOE.



[portrait of man in seal surround with 'CAMDEN THE NOURICE OF ANTIQUITIE' written around portrait]





/ p.3 /






/ p.5 /


THE curious early poem on masonry, which was printed in this work for the first time, has been again compared with the original manuscript for the present edition; and a popular glossary of the obsolete words in it has been added, in the expectation of rendering it more acceptable to those who are not versed in the ancient English language.
      A very good German translation of this little volume has recently been published by Dr. C.W. Asher, 8vo, Hamburgh, 1842. This class of literature is under great obligation to the authors of Germany, and to none more than Dr. Asher.
      August 3rd, 1843.


/ p.7 /


      "GOD alone is gracious and powerful! Thanks be to our gracious God, Father of heaven and of earth, and of all things that in them are, that he has vouchsafed to give power unto men!"
      So commences one of the ancient constitutions of Masonry; and can we be censured for opening our task in the same spirit ? An institution which has incontrovertibly in its present form maintained a fair reputation for three centuries, is not likely to suggest any reflection worthy of condemnation. Listen, then, ye mysterious sons of Adam, to the outpourings of one who has not the felicity of numbering himself a member of your fraternity, and who has never yet had a glance beyond the confines of your mighty arcana --

      "-- more wonderful
Than that which, by creation, first brought forth
Light out of darkness!"

/ p.8 /

      After the sun had descended down the seventh age from Adam, before the flood of Noah, there was born unto Methusael, the son of Mehujael, a man called Lamech, who took unto himself two wives; the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. Now Adah, his first wife, bare two sons, the one named Jabal and the other Jubal. Jabal was the inventor of geometry, and the first who built houses of stone and timber; and Jubal was the inventor of music and of harmony. Zillah, his second wife, bare Tubalcain, the instructor of every artificer in brass and iron; and a daughter called Naamah, who was the first founder of the weaver's craft.*

       * In the Charter of Freemasonry we are told, that "the seven liberal sciences are all but one science -- that is to say Geometry."

       All these had knowledge from above that the Almighty would take vengeance for sin, either by fire or by water, so great was the wickedness of the world. So they reasoned among themselves how they might preserve the knowledge of the sciences they had found; and Jabal said that there were two different kinds of stones, of such virtue that one would not burn, and the other would not sink, -- the one called marble, and the other latres. They then agreed to write all the sciences that / p.9 / they had found on these two stones, Jabal having offered to accomplish this; and therefore may we say that he was the most learned in science, for he accomplished the alpha and the omega.
       Water was the chosen instrument of destruction, but the two pillars of science remained in triumphant security. Hermes, the son of Shem, was the fortunate discoverer of one of them. After this the craft of Masonry flourished, and Nimrod was one of the earliest and most munificent patrons of the art. Abraham, the son of Terah, was a wise man and a great clerk, and he was skilled in all the seven sciences, and he taught the Egyptians the science of grammar. Euclid was the pupil of Abraham, and in his time the river Nile overflowed so far that many of the dwellings of the people of Egypt were destroyed. Euclid instructed them in the art of making mighty walls and ditches to stop the progress of the water, and by geometry measured out the land and divided it into partitions, so that each man might ascertain his own property. It was Euclid who gave Masonry the name of geometry. In his days it came to pass that the sovereign and lords of the realm had gotten many sons unlawfully by other men's wives, insomuch that the land was grievously burdened / p.10 / with them. A council was called, but no reasonable remedy was proposed. The king then ordered a proclamation to be made throughout his realms, that high rewards should be given to any man who would devise a proper method for maintaining the children. Euclid dispelled the difficulty. He thus addressed the king: "My noble sovereign, if I may have order and government of these lords' sons, I will teach them the seven liberal sciences, whereby they may live honestly like gentlemen, provided that you will grant me power over them by virtue of your royal commission." This request was immediately complied with, and Euclid established a Lodge of Masons.*

      * MS. Harl. 1942, quoted in Freemason's Quarterly Review, vol. iii, p.288-295. The earliest copy I have met with is in MS., Lansd, 98, No.48, written about 1600. Cf. the Freemason's Magazine, Feb. 1794.

      So far the ancient legend, which is found with occasional variations in the histories of the constitutions of Freemasonry. I have introduced it here as a preface to the very singular and curious English poem which follows, which would not be very intelligible without it.
      The poem alluded to is on the constitutions of Freemasonry, and is taken from a very small quarto / p.11 / manuscript on vellum, written not later than the latter part of the fourteenth century, preserved in the Old Royal Library at the British Museum. (Bib. Reg. 17 A, I. ff. 32.) Casley,*

      * The MS. formerly belonged to Charles Theyer, a well-known collector of the seventeenth century, and is No.146 in his collection, as described in Bernard's Catalogus Manuscriptorum Angliae, p.200, col.2. It was probably from this catalogue that Casley took his erroneous description, his own work being, for the most part, very carefully executed.

by some strange oversight, in the only catalogue we at present possess, has entitled it "a poem of moral duties;" and, although he gives the Latin title correctly, yet the real contents of this singular document were quite unknown, until I pointed them out in an essay "On the Introduction of Freemasonry into England," read before the Society of Antiquaries, during the session of 1838-9. I believe I am right in stating that this is the earliest document yet brought to light connected with the progress of Freemasonry in Great Britain.

/ p.12 /





Hic incipiunt constituciones artis gemetriae secundum Euclydem.

Whose wol bothe wel rede and loke,
Hy may fynde wryte yn olde boke
Of grete lordys, and eke ladyysse,
That hade mony chyldryn y-fere, y-wisse;
And hade no rentys to fynde hem wyth,
Nowther yn towne, ny felde, ny fryth:
A cownsel togeder they cowthe hem take,
To ordeyne for these chyldryn sake,
How they myztn best lede here lyfe
Withoute gret desese, care, and stryfe; 10
And most for the multytude that was comynge
Of here chyldryn after here zyndynge.
[They] sende thenne after grete clerkys,
To techyn hem thenne gode werkys;
And pray we hem, for our Lordys sake,
To oure chyldryn sum werke to make
That they myzth gete here lyvynge therby,
Bothe wel and onestlyche, ful sycurly.
Yn that tyme, throzgh good gemetry,
Thys onest craft of good masonry 20
/ p.13 /
Wes ordeynt and made yn thys manere,
Y-cownterfetyd of thys clerkys y-fere;
At these lordys prayers they cownterfetyd gemetry,
And zaf hyt the name of masonry,
For the moste oneste craft of alle.
These lordys chyldryn therto dede falle,
To lurne of hym the craft of gemetry,
The wheche he made ful curysly;
Throzgh fadrys prayers and modrys also,
Thys onest craft he putte hem to. 30
He that lernede best, and were of onesté,
And passud hys felows yn curysté;
zef yn that craft he dede hym passe,
He schulde have more worschepe then the lasse.
Thys grete clerkys name wes clept Euclyde,
Hys name hyt spradde ful wondur wyde.
zet thys grete clerke more ordeynt he,
To hym that was herre yn thys degré,
That he schulde teche the symplyst of [wytte]
Yn that onest craft to be parfytte; 40
And so uchon schulle techyn othur,
And love togeder as syster and brothur.
Forthermore zet that ordeynt he,
Mayster y-callud so schulde he be;
So that he were most y-worschepede,
Thenne sculde he be so y-clepede:
But mason schulde never won other calle,
Withynne the craft amongus hem alle,
Ny soget, ny servand, my dere brother,
Thazht he be not so perfyt as ys another; 50
/ p.14 /
Uchon sculle calle other felows by cuthe,
For cause they come of ladyes burthe.
On thys maner, throz good wytte of gemetry,
Bygan furst the craft of masonry:
The clerk Euclyde on thys wyse hyt fonde,
Thys craft of gemetry yn Egypte londe.
Yn Egypte he tawzhte hyt ful wyde,
Yn dyvers londe on every syde;
Mony erys afterwarde, y understonde,
zer that the craft com ynto thys londe. 60
Thys craft com ynto Englond, as y zow say,
Yn tyme of good kynge Adelstonus day;
He made tho bothe halle and eke bowre,
And hye templus of gret honowre,
To sportyn hym yn bothe day and nyzth,
An to worschepe hys God with alle hys myzth.
Thys goode lorde loved thys craft ful wel,
And purposud to strenthyn hyt every del,
For dyvers defawtys that yn the craft he fonde:
He sende aboute ynto the londe 70
After alle the masonus of the crafte,
To come to hym ful evene strazfte,
For to amende these defautys alle,
By good consel, zef hyt mytzth falle.
A semblé thenne he cowthe let make,
Of dyvers lordis, yn here state,
Dukys, erlys, and barnes also,
Knyzthys, sqwyers, and mony mo,
And the grete burges of that syté,
They were ther alle yn here degré; 80
/ p.15 /
These were ther uchon algate,
To ordeyne for these masonus astate.
Ther they sowzton y here wytte,
How they myzthyn governe hytte:
Fyftene artyculus they ther sowzton,
And fyftene poyntys ther they wrozton.

                        Hic incipit articulus primus.
The furste artycul of thys gemetry:-
The mayster mason moste be ful securly,
Bothe stedefast, trusty, and trwe,
Hyt shal hym never thenne arewe: 90
And pay thy felows after the coste,
As vytaylys goth thenne, wel thou woste;
And pay them trwly, apon thy fay,
What that they deserven may;
And to her hure take no more,
But what that they mowe serve fore;
And spare, nowther for love ny drede,
Of nowther partys to take no mede;
Of lord ny felow, whether he be,
Of hem thou take no maner of fe; 100
And as a jugge stonde upryzth,
And thenne thou dost to bothe good ryzth;
And trwly do thys whersever thou gost,
Thy worschep, thy profyt, hyt schal be most.

                        Articulus secundus.
The secunde artycul of good masonry,
As ze mowe hyt here hyr specyaly,
/ p.16 /
That every mayster, that ys a mason,
Most ben at the generale congregacyon,
So that he hyt resonably y-tolde,
-é schal be holde; 110
And to that semblé he most nede gon,
But he have a resenabul skwsacyon,
Or but he be unbuxom to that craft,
Or with falssehed ys over-raft,
Or ellus sekenes hath hym so stronge,
That he may not come hem amonge;
That ys a skwsacyon, good and abulle,
To that semblé withoute fabulle.

                        Articulus tercius.
The thrydde artycul for sothe hyt ysse,
That the mayster tkae to no prentysse, 120
But he have good seuerans to dwelle,
Seven zer with hym, as y zow telle,
Hys craft to lurne, that ys profytable;
Withynne lasse he may not ben able,
To lordys profyt, ny to his owne,
As ze mowe knowe by good resowne.

                        Articulus quartus.
The fowrthe artycul thys moste be,
That the mayster hym wel be-se,
That he no bondemon prentys make,
Ny for no covetyse do hym take; 130
For the lord that he ys bonde to,
May fache the prentes whersever he go.
/ p.17 /
zef yn the logge* he were y-take,
Muche desese hyt myzth ther make,
And suche case hyt myzth befalle,
That hyt myzth greve summe or alle.
For alle the masonus that ben there,
Wol stonde togedur hol y-fere.
zef suche won yn that craft schulde dwelle,
Of dyvers desesys ze myzth telle: 140
For more zese thenne, and of honesté,
Take a prentes of herre degré.
By olde tyme wryten y fynde,
That the prentes schulde be of gentyl kynde;
And so sumtyme grete lordys blod,
Toke thys gemetry, that ys ful good.

* It is curious to observe that the same term, lodge, is still in universal use among the Masons. See also the third point for the enjoinment of secresy at whatever was done at the lodges, which exactly corresponds with the present custom.

                        Articulus quintus.
The fyfthe artycul ys swythe good,
So that the prentes be of lawful blod;
The mayster schal not, for no vantage,
Make no prentes that ys outrage; 150
Hyt ys to mene, as ze mowe here,
That he have hys lymes hole alle y-fere;
To the craft hyt were gret schame,
To make an halt mon and a lame,
For an unperfyt mon of suche blod,
Schulde do the craft but lytul good.
/ p.18 /
Thus ze mowe knowe everychon,
The craft wolde have a myzhty mon;
A maymed mon he hath no myzht,
ze mowe hyt knowe long zer nyzht. 160

                        Articulus sextus.
The syxte artycul ze mowe not mysse,
That the mayster do the lord no pregedysse,
To take of the lord, for hyse prentyse,
Also muche as hys felows don, yn alle vyse.
For yn that craft they ben ful perfyt,
So ys not he, ze mowe sen hyt.
Also hyt were azeynus good reson,
To take hys hure, as hys felows don.
Thys same artycul, yn thys casse,
Juggythe the prentes to take lasse 170
Thenne hys felows, that ben ful perfyt.
Yn dyvers maters, conne qwyte hyt,
The mayster may his prentes so enforme,
That hys hure my crese ful zurne,
And, zer hys terme come to an ende,
Hys hure may ful wel amende.

                        Articulus septimus.
The seventhe artycul that ys now here,
Ful wel wol telle zow, alle y-fere,
That no mayster, for favour ny drede,
Schal no thef nowther clothe ny fede. 180
Theves he schal herberon never won,
Ny hym that hath y-quellude a mon,

/ p.19 /
Ny thylke that hath a febul name,
Lest hyt wolde turne the craft to schame.

                        Articulus octavus.
The eghte artycul schewet zow so,
That the mayster may hyt wel do,
zef that he have any mon of crafte,
And be not also perfyt as he auzte,
He may hym change sone anon,
And take for hym a perfytur mon. 190
Suche a mon, throze rechelaschepe,
Myzth do the craft schert worschepe.

                        Articulus nonus.
The nynthe artycul schewet ful welle,
That the mayster be both wyse and felle;
That no werke he undurtake,
But he conne bothe hyt ende and make;
And that hyt be to the lordes profyt also,
And to hys craft, whersever he go;
And that the grond be wel y-take,
That hyt nowther fle ny grake. 200

                        Articulus decimus.
The thenthe artycul ys for to knowe,
Amonge the craft, to hye and lowe,
Ther schal no mayster supplante other,
But be togeder as systur and brother,
Yn thys curyus craft, alle and som,
That longuth to a maystur mason.
/ p.20 /
Ny he schal not supplante non other mon,
That hath y-take a werke hym uppon,
Yn peyne therof that ys so stronge,
That peyseth no lasse thenne ten ponge, 201 [lit.]
But zef that he be gulty y-fonde,
That toke furst the werke on honde;
For no mon yn masonry,
Schal not supplante othur securly,
But zef that hyt be so y-wrozth,
That hyt turne the werke to nozth;
Thenne may a mason that werk crave,
To the lordes profyt hyt for to save;
Yn suche a case but hyt do falle,
Ther schal no mason medul withalle. 220
Forsothe he that begynnyth the gronde,
And he be a mason goode and sonde,
He hath hyt sycurly yn hys mynde,
To brynge the werke to ful good ende.

                        Articulus undecimus.
The eleventhe artycul y telle the,
That he ys bothe fayr and fre;
For he techyt, by hys myzth,
That no mason schulde worche be nyzth,
But zef hyt be yn practesynge of wytte,
zef that y cowthe amende hytte. 230

                        Articulus duodecimus.
The twelfthe artycul ys of hye honesté
To zevery mason, whersever he be;
/ p.21 /
He schal not hys felows werk deprave,
zef that he wol hys honesté save;
With honest wordes he hyt comende,
By the wytte that God the dede sende;
But hyt amende by al that thou may,
Bytwynne zow both withoute nay.

                        Articulus xiijus.
The threttene artycul, so God me save,
Ys, zef that the mayster a prentes have, 240
Enterlyche thenne that he hym teche,
And meserable poyntes that he hym reche,
That he the craft abelyche may conne,
Whersever he go undur the sonne.

                        Articulus xiiijus.
The fowrtene artycul, by good reson,
Scheweth the mayster how he schal don;
He schal no prentes to hym take,
But dyvers curys he have to make,
That he may, withynne hys terme,
Of hym dyvers poyntes may lurne. 250

                        Articulus quindecimus.
The fyftene artycul maketh an ende,
For to the mayster he ys a frende;
To lere hym so, that for no mon,
No fals mantenans he take hym apon,
Ny maynteine hys felows yn here synne,
For no good that he myzth wynne;
/ p.22 /
Ny no fals sware sofre hem to make,
For drede of here sowles sake;
Lest hyt wolde turne the craft to schame,
And hymself to mechul blame. 260

                        Plures Constituciones.
At thys semblé were poyntes y-ordeynt mo,
Of grete lordys and maystrys also,
That whose wol conne thys craft and com to astate,
He most love wel God, and holy churche algate,
And hys mayster also, that he ys wyth,
Whersever he go, yn fylde or fryth;
And thy felows though love also,
For that thy craft wol that thou do.

                        Secundus punctus.
The secunde poynt, as y zow say,
That the mason worche apon the werk day, 270
Also trwly, as he con or may,
To deserve hys huyre for the halyday,
And trwly to labrun on hys dede,
Wel deserve to have hys mede.

                        Tercius punctus.
The thrydde poynt most be severele,
With the prentes knowe hyt wele,
Hys mayster conwsel he kepe and close,
And hys felows by hys goode purpose;
The prevystye of the chamber telle he no mon,
Ny yn the logge whatsever they done; 280
/ p.23 /
Whatsever thou heryst, or syste hem do,
Telle hyt no mon, whersever thou go;
The conwsel of halle, and zeke of bowre,
Kepe hyt well to gret honowre,
Lest hyt wolde torne thyself to blame,
And brynge the craft ynto gret schame.

                        Quartus punctus.
The fowrthe poynt techyth us alse,
That no mon to hys craft be false;
Errour he schal maynteine none,
Azeynus the craft, but let hyt gone; 290
Ny no pregedysse he schal not do
To hys mayster, ny hys felows also;
And thazth the prentes be under awe,
zet he wolde have the same lawe.

                        Quintus punctus.
The fyfthe poynte ys, withoute nay,
That whenne the mason taketh hys pay,
Of the mayster, y-ordent to hym,
Ful mekely y-take so most hyt byn;
zet most the mayster, by good resone,
Warne hem lawfully byfore none, 300
zef he nulle okepye hem no more,
As he hath y-done ther byfore;
Azeynus thys ordyr he may not stryve,
zef he thenke wel for to thryve.

                        Sextus punctus.
The syxte poynt ys ful zef to knowe,
Bothe to hye and eke to lowe,
/ p.24 /
For suche case hyt myzth befalle,
Amonge the masonus, summe or alle,
Throwghe envye, or dedly hate,
Ofte aryseth ful gret debate. 310
Thenne owyth the mason, zef that he may,
Putte hem bothe undur a day;
But loveday zet schul they make none,
Tyl that the werke day be clene a-gone;
Apon the holyday ze mowe wel take,
Leyser y-nowzgh loveday to make,
Lest that hyt wolde the werke day,
Latte here werke for suche afray;
To suche ende thenne that ze hem drawe,
That they stonde wel yn Goddes lawe. 320

                        Septimus punctus.
The seventhe poynt he may wel mene,
Of wel longe lyf that God us lene,
As hyt dyscryeth wel opunly,
Thou schal not by thy maystres wyf ly,
Ny by thy felows, yn no maner wyse,
Lest the craft wolde the despyse;
Ny by thy felows concubyne,
No more thou soldest he dede by thyne.
The peyne thereof let lyt be ser,
That he be prentes ful seven zer, 330
Zef he forfete yn eny of hem,
So y-chasted thenne most he ben;
Ful mekele care myzth ther begynne,
For suche a fowle dedely synne.
/ p.25 /

                        Octavus punctus.
The eghte poynt, he may be sure,
zef thou hast y-taken any cure,
Under thy mayster thou be trwe,
For that poynt thou schal never arewe;
A trwe medyater thou most nede be,
To thy mayster, and thy felows fre; 340
Do trwly al .... that thou myzth,
To both partyes, and that ys good ryzth.

                        Nonus punctus.
The nynthe poynt we schul hym calle,
That he be stwarde of oure halle,
zef that ze ben yn chambur y-fere,
Uchon serve other, with mylde chere;
Jentul felows, ze moste hyt knowe,
For to be stwardus alle o rowe,
Weke after weke withoute dowte,
Stwardus to ben so alle abowte, 350
Lovelyche to serven uchon othur,
As thawgh they were syster and brother;
Ther schal never won on other costage
Fre hymself to no vantage,
But every mon schal be lyche fre,
Yn that costage, so moste hyt be;
Loke that thou pay wele every mon algate,
That thou hast y-bowzht any vytayles ate,
That no cravynge be y-mad to the,
Ny to thy felows, yn no degré, 360
/ p.26 /
To mon or to wommon, whether he be,
Pay hem wel and trwly, for that wol we;
Thereof an thy felow trwe record thou take,
For that good pay as thou dost make,
Lest hyt wolde thy felowe schame,
And brynge thyself ynto gret blame.
zet good acowntes he most make,
Of suche godes as he hath y-take,
Of thy felows goodes that thou hast spende,
Wher, and how, and to what ende; 370
Suche acowntes thou most come to,
Whenne thy felows wollen that thou do.

                        Decimus punctus.
The tenth poynt presentyeth wel god lyf,
To lyven withoute care and stryf;
For and the mason lyve amysse,
And yn hys werk be false, y-wysse,
And throwz suche a false skewysasyon,
May sclawndren hys felows oute reson,
Throwz false sclawnder of suche lame,
May make the craft kachone blame. 380
zef he do the craft suche vylany,
Do hym no favour thenne securly,
Ny maynteine not hym yn wyked lyf,
Lest hyt wolde turned to care and stryf;
But zet hym ze schul not delayme,
But that ze schullen hym constrayne,
For to apere whersevor ze wylle,
Whar that ze wolen, lowde or stylle;
/ p.27 /
To the nexte semblé ze schul hym calle,
To apere byfore hys felows alle, 390
And but zef he wyl byfore hem pere,
The crafte he moste nede forswere;
He schal thenne be chasted after the lawe,
That was y-fownded by olde dawe.

                        Punctus undecimus.
The eleventhe poynt ys of good dyscrecyoun,
As ze mowe knowe by good resoun;
A mason, and he thys craft wel con,
That syzth hys felow hewen on a ston,
And ys yn poynt to spylle that ston,
Amende hyt sone, zef that thou con, 400
And teche hym thenne hyt to amende,
That the hole werke be not y-schende.
And teche hym esely hyt to amende,
With fayre wordes, that God the hath lende;
For hys sake that sytte above,
With swete wordes noresche hym love.

                        Punctus duodecimus.
The twelthe poynt ys of gret ryolté,
Ther as the semblé y-holde schal be,
Ther schul be maystrys and felows also,
And other grete lordes mony mo; 410
Ther schal be the scheref of that contré,
And also the mayr of that syté,
Knyztes and sqwyers ther schul be,
And other aldermen, as ze schul se;
/ p.28 /
Suche ordynance as they maken there,
They schul maynté hyt hol y-fere,
Azeynus that mon, whatsever he be,
That longuth to the craft bothe fayr and fre.
zef he any stryf azeynus hem make,
Ynto here warde he schal be take. 420

                        xiijus punctus.
The threntethe poynt ys to us ful luf,
He schal swere never to be no thef,
Ny soker hym yn hys fals craft,
For no good that he hath byraft,
And thou mowe hyt knowe or syn,
Nowther for hys good, ny for hys kyn.

                        xiiijus punctus.
The fowrtethe poynt ys ful good lawe,
To hym that wold ben under awe;
A good trwe othe he most ther swere,
To hys mayster and hys felows that ben there; 430
He most be stedefast and trwe also,
To alle thys ordynance, whersever he go,
And to hys lyge lord the kynge,
To be trwe to hym, over alle thynge.
And alle these poyntes hyr before,
To hem thou most nede be y-swore,
And alle schul swere the same ogth,
Of the masonus, ben they luf, ben they loght,
To alle these poyntes hyr byfore,
That hath ben ordeynt by ful good lore. 440
/ p.29 /
And they schul enquire every mon,
On his party, as wyl as he con,
zef any mon mowe be y-fownde gulty,
Yn any of these poyntes spesyaly;
And whad he be, let hym be sowzht,
And to the semblé let hym be browzht.

                        Quindecimus punctus.
The fyftethe poynt ys of ful good lore,
For hem that schul ben ther y-swore,
Suche ordynance at the semblé was layd,
Of grete lordes and maystres byforesayd; 450
For thylke that ben unbuxon, y-wysse,
Azeynus the ordynance that there ysse,
Of these artyculus, that were y-meved there,
Of grete lordes and masonus al y-fere.
And zef they ben y-preved opunly,
Byfore that semblé, by an by,
And for here gultes no menys wol make,
Thenne most they nede the craft forsake;
And so masonus craft they schul refuse,
And swere hyt never more for to use. 460
But zef that they wol mendys make,
Azayn to the craft they schul never take;
And zef that they nul not do so,
The scheref schal come hem sone to,
And putte here bodyes yn duppe prison,
For the trespasse that they hav y-don,
And take here goodes and here cattelle,
Ynto the kynges hond, every delle,
/ p.30 /
And lete hem dwelle there ful stylle,
Tyl hyt be oure lege kynges wylle. 470

                        Alia ordinacio artis gemetriae.
They ordent ther a semblé to be y-holde,
Every zer, whersever they wolde,
To amende the defautes, zef any where fonde,
Amonge the craft withynne the londe;
Uche zer or thrydde zer hyt schuld be holde,
Yn every place whersever they wolde;
Tyme and place most be ordeynt also,
Yn what place they schul semble to.
Alle the men of craft ther they most ben,
And other grete lordes, as ze mowe sen, 480
To mende the fautes that buth ther y-spoke,
zef that eny of hen ben thenne y-broke.
Ther they schullen ben alle y-swore,
That longuth to thys craftes lore,
To kepe these statutes everychon,
That ben y-ordeynt by kynge Aldelston;
These statutes that y have hyr y-fonde,
Y chulle they ben holde throzh my londe,
For the worsché of my rygolté,
That y have by my dygnyté. 490
Also at evry semblé that ze holde,
That ze come to zowre lyge kyng bolde,
Bysechynge hym of hys hye grace,
To stonde with zow yn every place,
To conferme the statues of kynge Adelston,
That he ordeynt to thys craft by good reson.

/ p.31 /

                        Ars quatuour coronatorum.
Pray we now to God almyzht,
And to hys moder Mary bryzht,
That we mowe keepe these artyculus here,
And these poynts wel al y-fere, 500
As dede these holy martyres fowre,
That yn thys craft were of gret honoure;
They were as gode masonus as on erthe schul go,
Gravers and ymage-makers they were also.
For they were werkemen of the beste.
The emperour hade to hem gret luste;
He wylned of hem a ymage to make,
That mowzh be worscheped for his sake;
Suche mawmetys he hade yn hys dawe,
To turne the pepul from Crystus lawe. 510
But they were stedefast yn Crystes lay,
And to here craft, withouten nay;
They loved wel God and alle hys lore,
And weren yn hys serves ever more.
Trwe men they were yn that dawe,
And lyved wel y Goddus lawe;
They thozght no mawmetys for to make,
For no good that they myzth take,
To levyn on that mawmetys for here God,
They nolde do so, thawz he were wod; 520
For they nolde not forsake here trw fay,
An byleve on hys falsse lay.
The emperour let take hem sone anone,
And putte hem ynto a dep presone;
The sarre he penest hem yn that plase,
The more yoye wes to hem of Cristus grace.
/ p.32 /
Thenne when he sye no nother won,
To dethe he lette hem thenne gon;
Whose wol of here lyf zet mor knowe,
By the bok he may hyt schowe, 530
In the legent of scanctorum,
The names of quatuour coronatorum.
Here fest wol be, withoute nay,
After Alle Halwen the eyght day.
ze mow here as y do rede,
That mony zeres after, for gret drede,
That noees flod wes alle y-ronne,
The tower of Babyloyne was begonne,
Also playne werke of lyme and ston,
As any mon schulde loke uppon; 540
So long and brod hyt was begonne,
Seven myle the hezghte schadweth the sonne.
Kyng Nabogodonosor let hyt make,
To great strenthe for monus sake,
Thazgh suche a flod azayne schulde come,
Over the werke hyt schulde not nome;
For they hadde so hye pride, with strange bost,
Alle that werke therfore was y-lost;
An angele smot hem so with dyveres speche,
That never won wyste what other schuld reche.
Mony eres after, the goode clerk Euclyde 551
Tazghte the craft of gemetré wonder wyde,
So he dede that tyme other also,
Of dyvers craftes mony mo.
Throzgh hye grace of Crist yn heven,
He commensed yn the syens seven;
/ p.33 /
Gramatica ys the furst syens y-wysse,
Dialetica the secunde, so have y blysse,
Rethorica the thrydde, withoute nay,
Musica ys the fowrth, as y zow say, 560
Astromia ys the v, by my snowte,
Arsmetica the vi, withoute dowte,
Gemetria the seventhe maketh an ende,
For he ys bothe meke and hende.
Gramer forsothe ys the rote,
Whose wyl lurne on the boke;
But art passeth yn hys degré,
As the fryte doth the rote of the tre;
Rethoryk metryth with orne speche amonge,
And musyke hyt ys a swete songe; 570
Astronomy nombreth, my dere brother,
Arsmetyke scheweth won thyng that ys another,
Gemetré the seventhe syens hyt ysse,
That con deperte falshed from trewthe y-wys.
These ben the syens seven,
Whose useth hem wel, he may han heven.
Now dere chyldren, by zowre wytte,
Pride and covetyse that ze leven hytte,
And taketh hede to goode dyscrecyon,
And to good norter, whersever ze com. 580
Now y pray zow take good hede,
For thys ze most kenne nede,
But muche more ze moste wyten,
Thenne ze fynden hyr y-wryten.
zef the fayle therto wytte,
Pray to God to sende the hytte;
/ p.34 /
For Crist hymself, he techet ous,
That holy churche ys Goddes hous,
That ys y-mad for nothynge ellus,
But for to pray yn, as the bok tellus; 590
Ther the pepul schal gedur ynne,
To pray and wepe for here synne.
Loke thou come not to churche late,
For to speke harlotry by the gate;
Thenne to churche when thou dost fare,
Have yn thy mynde ever mare,
To worschepe thy lord God bothe day and nyzth,
With all thy wyttes, and eke thy myzth.
To the churche dore when thou dost come,
Of that holy water ther sum thow nome, 600
For every drope thou felust ther,
Qwenchet a venyal synne, be thou ser.
But furst thou most do down thy hode,
For hyse love that dyed on the rode.
Into the churche when thou dost gon,
Pulle uppe thy herte to Crist, anon;
Uppon the rode thou loke uppe then,
And knele down fayre on bothe thy knen;
Then pray to hym so hyr to worche,
After the lawe of holy churche, 610
For to keep the comandementes ten,
That God zaf to alle men;
And pray to hym with mylde steven,
To kepe the from the synnes seven,
That thou hyr mowe, yn thy lyve,
Kepe the wel from care and stryve;
/ p.35 /
Forthermore he grante the grace,
In heven blysse to han a place.
In holy churche lef nyse wordes,
Of lewed speche, and fowle wordes, 620
And putte away alle vanyté,
And say thy pater noster and thyn ave;
Loke also thou make no bere,
But ay to be yn thy prayere;
zef thou wolt not thyselve pray,
Latte non other mon by no way.
In that place nowther sytte ny stonde,
But knele fayre down on the gronde,
And, when the Gospel me rede schal,
Fayre thou stonde up fro the wal, 630
And blesse the fayre, zef that thou conne,
When gloria tibi is begonne;
And when the gospel ys y-done,
Azayn thou myzth knele adown;
On bothe thy knen down thou falle,
For hyse love that bowzht us alle;
And when thou herest the belle rynge,
To that holy sakerynge,
Knele ze most, bothe zynge and olde,
And bothe zor hondes fayr upholde, 640
And say thenne yn thys manere,
Fayr and softe, withoute bere;
"Jhesu Lord, welcom thou be,
Yn forme of bred, as y the se!
Now Jhesu, for thyn holy name,
Schulde me from synne and schame;

/ p.36 /
Schryff and hosel thou grant me bo,
zer that y schal hennus go,
And very contrycyon of my synne,
That y never, Lord, dye therynne; 650
And, as thou were of a mayde y-bore,
Sofre me never to be y-lore;
But when y schal hennus wende,
Grante me the blysse withoute ende;
Amen! amen! so mot hyt be!
Now, swete lady, pray for me."
Thus thou myzht say, or sum other thynge,
When thou knelust at the sakerynge.
For covetyse after good, spare thou nought,
To worschepe hym that alle hath wroght; 660
For glad may a mon that day ben,
That onus yn the day may hym sen;
Hyt ys so muche worthe, withoute nay,
The vertu therof no mon telle may;
But so meche good doth that syht,
As seynt Austyn telluth ful ryht,
That day thou syst Goddus body,
Thou schalt have these, ful securly:--
Mete and drynke at thy nede,
Non that day schal the gnede; 670
Ydul othes, an wordes bo,
God forzeveth the also;
Soden deth, that ylke day,
The dar not drede by no way;
Also that day, y the plyht,
Thou schalt not lese thy eye syht;
/ p.37 /
And uche fote that thou gost then,
That holy syht for to sen,
They schul be told to stonde yn stede,
When thou hast therto gret nede; 680
That messongere, the angele Gabryelle,
Wol kepe hem to the ful welle.
From thys mate now y may passe,
To telle mo medys of the masse:
To churche come zet, zef thou may,
And here thy masse uche day;
zef thou mowe not come to churche,
Wher that thou doste worche,
When thou herest to masse knylle,
Pray to God with herte stylle, 690
To zeve the part of that servyse,
That yn churche ther don yse.
Forthermore zet, y wol zow preche,
To zowre felows, hyt for to teche,
When thou comest byfore a lorde,
Yn halle, yn bowre, or at the borde,
Hod or cappe that thou of do,
zer thou come hym allynge to;
Twyes or thryes, withoute dowte,
To that lord thou moste lowte; 700
With thy ryzth kne let hyt be do,
Thyn owne worsshepe thou save so,
Holde of thy cappe, and hod also,
Tyl thou have leve hyt on to do.
Al the whyle thou spekest with hym,
Fayre and lovelyche bere up thy chyn;

/ p.38 /
So, affter the norter of the boke,
Yn hys face lovely thou loke.
Fot and hond, thou kepe ful stylle,
From clawynge and trypynge, ys sckylle; 710
From spyttynge and snyftynge kepe the also,
By privy avoydans let hyt go.
And zef that thou be wyse and felle,
Thou hast gret nede to governe the welle.
Ynto the halle when thou dost wende,
Amonges the genteles, good and hende,
Presume not to hye for nothynge,
For thyn hye blod, ny thy comynge,
Nowther to sytte, ny to lene,
That ys norther good and clene. 720
Let not thy cowntenans therfore abate,
Forsothe, good norter wol save thy state.
Fader and moder, whatsever they be,
Wel ys the chyld that wel may the,
Yn halle, yn chamber, wher thou dost gon,
Gode maneres make a mon.
To the nexte degré loke wysly,
To do hem reverans by and by;
Do hem zet no reverans al o-rowe,
But zef that thou do hem knowe. 730
To the mete when though art y-sette,
Fayre and onestelyche thou ete hytte;
Fyrst loke that thyn honden be clene,
And that thy knyf be scharpe and kene;
And kette thy bred al at thy mete,
Ryzth as hyt may be ther y-ete,

/ p.39 /
zef thou sytte by a worthyour mon,
Then thy selven thou art won,
Sofre hym fyrst to toyche the mete,
zer thyself to hyt reche. 740
To the fayrest mossel thou myzht not strike,
Thaght that thou do hyt wel lyke;
Kepe thyn hondes, fayr and wel,
From fowle smogynge of thy towel;
Theron thou schalt not thy nese snyte,
Ny at the mete thy tothe thou pyke;
To depe yn the coppe thou myzght not synke,
Thagh thou have good wyl to drynke,
Lest thyn enyn wolde wattryn therby--
Then were hyt no curtesy. 750
Loke yn thy mowth ther be no mete,
When thou begynnyst to drynke or speke.
When thou syst any mon drynkynge,
That taket hed to thy carpynge,
Sone anonn thou sese thy tale,
Whether he drynke wyn other ale.
Loke also thou scorne no mon,
Yn what degré thou syst hym gon;
Ny thou schalt no mon deprave,
zef thou wolt thy worschepe save; 760
For suche worde myzht ther outberste,
That myzht make the sytte yn evel reste.
Close thy honde yn thy fyste,
And kepe the wel fro "had-y-wyste."
Yn chamber, amonge the ladyes bryght,
Holde thy tonge and spende thy syght;

/ p.40 /
Lawze thou not with no gret cry,
Ny make no ragynge with rybody.
Play thou not but with thy peres,
Ny tel thou not al that thou heres; 770
Dyskever thou not thyn owne dede,
For no merthe, ny for no mede;
With fayr speche thou myght have thy wylle,
With hyt thou myght thy selven spylle.
When thou metyst a worthy mon,
Cappe and hod thou holle not on;
Yn churche, yn chepyns, or yn the gate,
Do hym revera[n]s after hys state.
zef thou gost with a worthyor mon,
Then thyselven thou art won, 780
Let thy forther schuld sewe hys backe,
For that ys not withoute lacke;
When he doth speke, holte the stylle,
When he hath don, sey for thy wylle,
Yn thy speche that thou be felle,
And what thou sayst avyse the welle;
But byref thou not hym hys tale,
Nowther at the wyn, ny at the ale.
Cryst then of hys hye grace,
zeve zow bothe wytte and space, 790
Wels thys boke to conne and rede,
Heven to have for zowre mede!
Amen! amen! so mot hyt be!
Say we so alle per charyté.


/ p.41 /

The foregoing poem proves the tradition to be at least as ancient as the close of the fourteenth century; and from l. 143, it would appear that the writer, who was a priest,*

* This appears from l.629, "And when the gospel me rede schal."

had access to some documents concerning the history of "the craft." Many writers, more zealous than cautious, place the date of the introduction of Freemasonry into England in the third century, but it need scarcely be said that there is not the slightest authority for any such belief.**

** Lawrie's History of Freemasonry, 8vo., Edinb., 1804; Anderson's History; Desagulier's Constitutions; Smith's Use and Abuse of Freemasonry; Preston's Illustrations; L'Univers Maconique, &c.

In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1753,***

*** Vol. xxiii. p.417. Reprinted in the Freemason's Magazine for the month of August, 1794. See also, Preston's Illustrations of Masonry, p.110, and Dermott's Ahiman Rezon, 12mo, Dublin, 1803.

there is a reprint of a pamphlet, stated to have been published at Frankfort, in the year 1748, in an octavo volume of twelve pages. It is entitled, "Certayne questions, with awnsweres to the same, concernynge the mystery of Maconrye; wryttene by the hande of Kynge Henrye the Sixthe of the name, and faythfullye copied by me Johan Leylande Antiquarius, by the command of his Highesse," -- probably Henry / p.42 / the Eighth. This document was stated to have been copied by one Mr. Collins, from a MS. in the Bodleian Library, and to have been enclosed in a letter from John Locke, the celebrated metaphysician, to Thomas, Earl of Pembroke, dated May the 6th, 1696. It has been so frequently printed*

* In addition to the reprints before mentioned, I may add the Life of Leland, where its authenticity is asserted. It may be as well to inform the reader, that a large mass of papers relating to the London Freemasons, extending from 1732 to 1750, may be found in the Bodleian Library, MS. Rawl. C. 136. Mr. Black possesses a minute-book of the Freemasons of Chester, of the commencement of the eighteenth century.

that I do not consider it necessary to insert it here; but it is singular that the circumstances attending its publication should have led no one to suspect its authenticity. A few years since I was at the pains of making a long search in the Bodleian Library, in the hope of finding the original, but without success: and I think there is little doubt but that this celebrated and well-known document is a forgery.
       In the first place, why should such a document have been printed abroad? Was it likely that it should have found its way to Frankfort, nearly half a century afterwards, and been published without any explanation of the source whence it was obtained? Again the orthography is most grotesque / p.43 / and too gross every to have been penned either by Henry the Sixth or Leland, or both combined. For instance, we have Peter Gowere, a Grecian, explained in a note by the fabricator -- for who else could have solved it? -- to be Pythagoras! As a whole, it is but a very clumsy attempt at deception, and is quite a parallel to the recently discovered one of the first Englishe Mercurie. Let us add that Freemasonry is not in any degree dishonoured by the rejection of this evidence from its history.
      In the third year of the reign of Henry the Sixth, during that sovereign's minority, the following statute received the sanction of Parliament:--

       "First, -- Whereas, by the yearly congregations and confederacies made by the Masons in their general chapiters assembled, the good course and effect of the statue of labourers be openly violated and broken, in subversion of the law, and to the great damage of all the commons: our said lord the King, willing in this case to provide remedy, by the advice and assent aforesaid, and at the special request of the said commons, hath ordained and established, That such chapiters and congregations shall not be hereafter holden; and if any such be made, they that cause such chapiters and congregations to be assembled and holden, if they thereof be convict, shall / p.44 / be judged for felons; and that all the other masons that come to such chapiters and congregations, be punished by imprisonment of their bodies, and make fine and ransom at the will of the King."

      Now this Act,*

* See "The Grand Mistery of Freemasons discovered," folio, Lond. 1724, p.12.

instead of dissolving this corporation, the "generalx chapitres assemblez," which would in fact have acknowledged it as legal prior to such dissolution, forbids all the chapters and other congregations to be held, and declares all persons assembling or holding such to be felons. It appears from this, that very probably many especial privileges were conferred by the Papal see upon the trading fraternity of Freemasons, which is said to have existed in Europe during the middle ages.**

** Archaeologia, vol. ix, p.118.

      Further than this, that, upon the strength of these privileges, the Freemasons had presumed to invade the established law of the land, and arrogate to themselves an exclusive nomination of workmen. On this supposition, we can account for the violation of the statute of labourers alluded to in this act.***

*** Lawrie (p.95) asserts that a Lodge of Freemasons was formed at Canterbury, in the year 1429, with the Archbishop at its head. He quotes a MS. register, but does not state where it is to be found. I see no reason, however, to question his veracity.

/ p.45 /

       Dr. Plot in his History of Staffordshire, mentions the statute of 3 Hen. VI., and asserts that it was repealed by an act passed in 5 Eliz. cap. 4. This is not correct, but it is difficult to imagine how the mistake could have originated, for it does not appear that the statute ever was repealed. There was, indeed, an act passed in 1548,*

* Stat. 2 and 3 Edw. VI, cap. sv, $ 3.

allowing Freemasons to practise their craft in any town in England, although not free of that town; but this of course refers to the company in its working form, and not to a benefit society; and in either case does not abrogate the former statute.
      This last-mentioned statute is important as showing the recent use of the term freemason to those who practised the actual trade. In the year 1506, John Hylmer and William Vertue, freemasons, were engaged to "vaulte or doo to bee vawlted with free-stone the roof of the quere of the College Roiall of our Lady and Saint George, within the castell of Wyndsore, according to the roof of the body of the said College."**

** I glean this information from an indenture dated 5 Jun. 21 Hen. VIII, copied from the original in the Archives of the Dean and Chapter of Windsor, by Ashmole, MS. Ashm. 1125, fol. 11, ro -- 12, ro., lately printed in the Reliquiae Antiquae, vol. ii, p.115. See also Palgrave's "Kalendars of the Exchequer," vol. i, An illumination of Masons in the act of building may be seen in MS. Bib. Reg. 19 D. ij, fol. 68, vo. b, of the commencement of the fifteenth century: the master mason is superintending.

A friend has suggested to me the possible connection between the terms freemason and freestone.

/ p.46 /

      The following extract from Aubrey's "Natural History of Wiltshire," p.277, a manuscript in the library of the Royal Society, will be read with interest. It appears that Sir Christopher Wren in 1691, was enrolled among the members of the fraternity:--

       "Sir William Dugdale told me many yeares since, that about Henry the Third's time, the Pope gave a bull or patents to a company of Italian freemasons, to travell up and down over all Europe to build churches. From those are derived the Fraternity of adopted masons. They are known to one another by certain signes and watch-words; it continues to this day. They have severall lodges in severall counties for their reception; and when any of them fall into decay, the brotherhood is to relieve him, &c. The manner of their adoptionis very formall, and with an oath of secrecy.
      " Memorandum. This day, May the 18th, being Monday, 1691, after Rogation Sunday, is a great convention at St. Paul's Church of the Fraternity of the adopted masons, where Sir Christopher Wren is to be adopted a brother, and Sir Henry Goodric of / p.47 / the Tower, and divers others. There have been kings that have been of this sodality."

       My collection of facts is now exhausted, and it has been a source of great regret to me, that I have not been able to obtain a more connected and certain train of evidence. The few isolated particulars I have brought together are, however, more satisfactory than the generalities stated by former writers. How willingly should we exchange some of our documents on an overburdened subject for a few more on this--

Fortuna multis dat nimis, nulli satis.

      The identity of the legend in the ancient poem with that in the modern constitutions, is a decisive argument in favour of the connection between the old societies of masons, and the benefit clubs of the seventeenth century.*

* The fact is that every trade had a company, and the regulations of the companies of masons in olden times were not very different from those of the others. I refer the reader to the statutes of the company of tilers at Coventry, in the fourteenth century, in MS. Harl. 6466.

We have already seen that the modern system must be posterior to the 3rd of Edw. VI., and the earliest existing manuscript of the later constitutions belongs to the commencement of the seventeenth century. In defiance, / p.48 / then, of the creationist Freemasons of the present day, I am sure that every unprejudiced enquirer will admit that, in all probability, English Freemasonry in its present state was not introduced before the close of the sixteenth century.
       In concluding these brief memoranda, I am aware how much yet remains to be done, and how much may be done by a zealous investigator -- one who is initiated in the mysteries of the craft, and who does not cling to the romantic ideas of its too willing votaries. Let him turn away for a moment from the mummery which envelopes the real good, and take a rational view of the facts of the case. To me it appears scarcely credible, that a body of men, of all ranks and all professions, uniting in a circle of love and friendship, and aiming at the accomplishment of the summum bonum of a Christian life, should so far forget their own acknowledged importance as to wish for proofs of a pedigree from Adam. Fronti nulla fides: surely the weight of a supposititious though splendid origin cannot raise the society in the estimation of the wise and good--

--miserum est aliorum incumbere famae,
Ne collapsa ruant subductis tecta columnis.


/ p.49 /


Abelyche, 243, ably. Carpynge, 754, speech
Adown, 634, down. See Chaucer, Chasted, 393, chastised
    Cant. T., 17054, where it means Chepyns, 777, markets
    below, its more usual meaning. Chulle, 488, will
Azeynus, 290, 303, 417, 452, against. Clept, 35, called
A-gone, 314, gone, past. Con, 397, to know
Algate, 81, 264, 357, always, by all Con, 400, can
    means, everyway. The correspond-  
    ing Lat. omnino in the Prompt. Conne, 172, 631, can.
    Parv. scarcely explains it. Omni- Conwsel, 277, 283, counsel.
    modo is the better explanation. Costage, 353, 356, cost, expense. See
Alle-halwen, 534, Allhallows.     Sir Amadas, 444; Maundevile's
Allynge, 698, totally, entirely. See     Travels, p.125.
    Flor. and Blanch., 669. Covetyse, 659, covetousness.
Almyzht, 497, all powerful. This Cownterfetyd, 23, imitated.
    line often occurs in early poetry. Cowthe, 7, 75, 230, could, was able.
Alse, 287, also.     See Prol. Cant. T., 392; Maunde-
An, 522, and.     vile's Travels, p.132. It is more
And, 222, 375, if.     generally formed from con, to know
      than from the other sense of the
Apere, 387, 390, to appear     verb. See above, the two meanings
Apon, 93, 254, 270, 315, upon.     of con.
Arewe, 90, 338, to repent. Crese, 174, to increase.
Arsmetyk, 572, arithmetic. Curys, 248, cares.
Astate, 82, 263, estate, dignity. Curysly, 28, curiously.
Avoydans, 712, expulsion. Curysté, 32, curiousity.
Avyse, 786, to advise, to consider. Curyus, 205, curious.
    Avyse the welle" is a common  
    phrase in early poetry. See Ywaine Cuthe, 51, acquaintance, relationship.
    and Gawin, 1511. Dawe, 394, 509, 515, day.
Barnes, 77, barons. Defawtys, 69, defects.
Bere, 623, 642, noise, cry. See Kyng Del, 68, 468, part.
    Alisaunder, 550. Delayme, 385, delay.
Be-se, 128, to see, to behold. A.S. Deperte, 574, divide.
    beseon. It here means to take care. Desese, 10, 134, inconvenience. "An-
Bo, 647, 671, both.     gustia" is the corresponding Latin
Byraft, 424, bereaved, deprived.     word in the Prompt. Parv.
Byref, 787, deprive. Duppe, 465, deep.
/ p.50 /  
Dyscryeth, 323, describeth. Hem, 5, them.
Enterlyche, 241, entirely. Hende, 564, 716, courteous, gentle.
Enyn, 749, eyes. Herberen, 181, harbour, protect.
Erys, 59, years. Here, 592, their.
Everychon, 485, every one. Herre, 38, 142, higher.
Fache, 132, fetch. Hosel, 647, the Sacrament of the
Fare, 595, to go.     Lord's Supper.
Fay, 521, faith. Hye, 306, high.
Fayre, 631, well, fairly. Hyr, 106, hear.
Felle, 194, 713, strong. Hytte, 586, it.
Fonde, 55, discovered. Kachone, 380, catch.
Fre, 226, noble, liberal. Kenne, 582, to show.
Fryte, 568, fruit. Kette, 735, to cut.
Fryth, 6, 266, an enclosed wood. See Knen, 608, knees.
    Lud. Cov, p.264; Piers Plough- Knyztes, 413, knights.
    man, pp.224, 241, 355; Drayton's Knylle, 689, to knell.
    Polyolb., xi, p.862; Robson's Labrun, 273, to labour.
    Rom., pp. 1, 3. Ladyysse, 3, ladies.
Fynde, 5, to provide with food, cloth-  
    ing, &c. We still use the word, -- a Lame, 379, often. This seems to be
    man is to have so much a week, and     a ramification of A.S. gelome.
    find himself. Lasse, 34, less.
zaf, 24, gave. Latte, 318, 626, hinder.
zef, 33, if. Lawze 767, laugh.
zef, 305, given. Lay, 511, 522, law, religion.
Gemetry, 19, &c., geometry. Lende, 404, given.
zer, 60, ere, before. Lene, 322, to grant, to give.
zese, 141, ease. Leyser, 316, leisure, opportunity.
Gnede, 670, be wanting. Logge, 133, 280, a lodge. In Kyng
Gon, 528, go.     Alisaunder, 4295, the word is used
Grake, 200, crack.     for a tent.
Gravers, 504, engravers. Loght, 438, loath.
zurne, 174, early. Longuth, 418, belongeth.
zyndynge, 12, ending. Loveday, 313, 316, a day appointed
      for the amicable settlement of dif-
Had-y-wyste, 764, an exclamation of     ferences. It corresponds to the
    those who repented of anything     Lat. sequestra in the Prompt,
    unadvisedly performed. The ex-     Parv. See Lud. Cov., p 111; Cant.
    pression addiwissen is said to be     T., 260; H. of Fame, ii. 187; Test.
    still in use in the North in the same     of Love, ed. Urry, p.481.
    sense. See Brocket's Glossary, ed. Lovelyche, 351, 706, lovely.
    1825, p.2. It is rather amusing to Lowte, 700, to bow, to make obeisance.
    read Ash's explanation of this word,  
    in v. The expression is very com- Luf, 421, 438, dear, willing. Another
    mon in Elizabethan writers.     form of lef or leve.
Han, 576, 618, have. Luste, 506, liking.
/ p.51 /  
Lyche, 355, alike, equally. Ponge, 210, pound.
Mawmetys, 509, 517, 519, idols. See Poyntys, 86, divisions.
    Cant. T., iv. 85. Pregedysse, 162, 291, prejudice.
Maynté, 416, maintain. Prevytyse, 279, privities.
Mechul, 260, much. Qwenchet, 602, quenches.
Mede, 98, bribe, reward. Qwyte, 172, requite.
Medys, 684, rewards. Rechelaschepe, 191, recklessness.
Mekele, 333, much. Rode, 604, 607, the Cross.
Mendys, 457, 461, amends. Rybody, 768, ribaldry.
Meserable, 242, measurable. Rygolté, 489, royalty.
Metryth, 569, measureth. Ryolté, 407, royalty.
Meyr, 412, mayor. Sakerynge, 638, 658, Sacrament.
Mo, 261, more. Sarre, 525, sorer.
Moder, 498, mother. Say, 61, to tell.
Monus, 544, man's. Schadweth, 542, shadoweth.
Most, 477, must. Schert, 192, short, little.
Most, 11, chiefly. Schryff, 647, confession.
Mot, 655, may. Sckylle, 710, reason.
Mowe, 315, 499, may. Semblé, 75, an assembly.
Nolde, 520, 521, would not. Ser, 602, sure.
Nome, 546, 600, take. Sese, 755, to cease.
Norter, 580, 707, nurture. Seuerans, 121, assurance.
Nother, 527, other, with the negative Sewe, 781, to follow.
    particle. Skwsacyon, 112, 377, an excuse.
Nowther, 180, neither. Smogynge, 744, smudging, smearing.
Nulle, 301, 463, will not.     The word is still in use.
Ny, 6, nor. Snyftynge, 711, snuffling. This word
Ogth, 437, oath.     is still in almost general use.
Okepye, 301, to occupy. Snyte, 745, to blow the nose. This
Onestlyche, 18, honestly.     word is still in use in the North.
Ordeynt, 21, 477, 496, ordained.     Ray explains it "to wipe." See
Orne, 569, adorned.     his "Collection of English Words,"
      1674, p.44.
Orowe, 348, 729, in a row. So, 148. This is probably a mistake
Other, 756, or.     in the MS. for se.
Oute, 378, without. Soget, 49, subject.
Outrage, 150, not perfect. Soker, 423, to succour.
Over, 434, above. Sowzton, 85, sought.
Over-raft, 114, overtaken. Sqwyers, 413, squires.
Penest, 525, punished, pained. Steven, 613, voice.
Pere, 391, to appear. Strazfte, 72, straight, directly.
Peyseth, 210, weigheth. Sware, 257, oath.
Plyht, 675, promise. Swythe, 147, very.
/ p.52 /  
Sycurly, 18, securely. Y-chasted, 332, chastised.
Sye, 527, saw. Y-clepede, 46, called, named.
Syzth, 398, sees. Y-cownterfetyd, 22, imitated.
Syn, 425, see. Y-done, 302, 466, 633, done.
Syste, 281, seest. Ydul, 671, idle.
Take, 420, taken. Y-ete, 736, eaten.
Tellus, 590, tells, says. Y-fere, 4, together.
Thawz, 520, though. Y-fonde, 211, 443, 487, found.
The, 724, to thrive, to prosper. Y-fownded, 394, founded.
Tho, 63, then. Y-holde, 408, 471, holden.
Thylke, 183, 451, that. Y-lore, 652, lost.
Trwe, 337, 339, true. Y-mad, 359, 589, made.
Trwly, 341, truly. Y-meved, 453, moved.
Tyl, 470, as long as. Y-nowzgh, 316, enough.
Uche, 475, each. Y-ordeynt, 261, 486, ordained.
Uchon, 41, each one. Yoye, 526, joy.
Unbuxom, 113, 451, disobedient. Y-preved, 455, proved.
Unperfyt, 155, imperfect. Y-quellude, 182, killed.
Vantage, 149, 354, profit, advantage. Y-ronne, 537, run.
Whad, 445, what. Y-schende, 402, ruined, destroyed.
      The part. pas. shent occurs in the
Whersever, 432, 472, 476, whereso-     Merry Wives of Windsor, i. 4,
    ever.     which Mr. Knight explains "rough-
Wod, 520, mad.     ly handled," a very bad guess of
Won, 47, one.     Steevens', which Mr. Knight, as
Worsché, 489, worship.     usual, has appropriated to himself.
Woste, 92, knowest. Yse, 692, is.
Wrozton, 86, wrought. Y-sette, 731, set down.
Wryte, 2, written. Y-spoke, 481, spoken.
Wylned, 507, willed. Ysse, 119, 573, is.
Wyste, 550, knew. Y-swore, 436, 448, 483, swore.
Wyten, 583, know. Y-take, 133, 208, 298, 368, taken.
Wytte, 53, knowledge. Y-taken, 336, taken.
Y-bore, 651, born. Y-tolde, 109, told.
Y-bowzht, 358, bought. Y-wisse, 4, 451, certainly.
Y-broke, 482, broken. Y-worschepede, 45, reverenced.
Y-callud, 44, called. Y-wryten, 584, written.




Corrections made in pencil to the British Library 2nd edition copy

l.90 Adding a 'c' to shal in :
Hyt schal hym never thenne arewe:

l.95 Adding the comment 'see Glossary'

l.265-6 Adding an 'e' to the end of wyth; Adding an 'e' to the end of fryth in:
And hys mayster also, that he ys wythe,
Whersever he go, yn fylde or frythe;

l.279 Correcting prevystye to 'prevetyse':
The prevytyse of the chamber telle he no mon,

l.329 Correcting lyt to 'hyt' by deleting the 'l' and replacing with an 'h':
The peyne thereof let hyt be ser,

l.338 Adding a 't' to the end of schal in:
For that poynt thou schalt never arewe;

l.363 Correcting an to 'on' by deleting the 'a' and replacing with an 'o':
Therof on thy felow trwe record thou take

l.379 Correcting lame to 'fame' by deleting the 'l' and replacing with an 'f':
Throwz false sclawnder of suche fame

l.402 Underlining hole and adding '?lordys' in the margin:
That the hole werke be not y-schende

l.449 Correcting was to 'wes' by deleting the 'a' and replacing with an 'e':
Suche ordynance at the semblé wes layd

l.451 Correcting unbuxon to 'unbuxom' by deleting the 'n' and replacing with an 'm':
For thylke that ben unbuxom, y-wysse,

l.547 Correcting strange to 'strong' by deleting the 'a' and replacing with an 'o':
For they hadde so hye pride, with stronge bost,

l.576 Correcting han to 'hav' by deleting the 'n' and replacing with an 'n':
Whose useth hem wel, he may hav heven.

l.618 Correcting han to 'hav' by deleting the 'n' and replacing with an 'n':
In heven blysse to hav a place.

l.620 Correcting wordes to 'bordes' by deleting the 'w' and replacing with a 'b':
Of lewed speche, and fowle bordes,

l.628 Correcting gronde to 'grnde' by deleting the 'o':
But knele fayre down on the grnde,

l.648 Correcting hennus to 'hev'nus' by deleting the 'n' and replacing with 'v'':
zer that y schal hev'nus go,

l.653 Correcting hennus to 'hev'nus' by deleting the 'n' and replacing with 'v'':
But when y schal hev'nus wende,

l.688 Adding ever after 'that':
Wher that ever thou doste worche,

l.718 Correcting comynge to 'connynge' by deleting the 'm' and replacing with 'nn':
For thyn hye blod, ny thy connynge,

l.737 [unclear]
Correcting worthyour to 'worth your' or 'worth thyour' by adding 'th':
zef thou sytte by a worth your mon,
zef thou sytte by a worth thyour mon,

l.781 Correcting schuld to 'schulder' by adding 'er' to its end:
Let thy forther schulder sewe hys backe,

l.782 Queries whether not should not be 'norter':
For that ys noter withoute lacke

Amendments pencilled into the Glossary

p.49 Inserted entry between Bo and Byraft:
Bordes, 620. Obscene words
  Added 'striving' to Covetyse:
Covetyse, 659, covetousness, striving.

p.50 Added 'free' to Fre:
Fre, 226, noble, liberal, free.
  Entry deleted:
Han, 576, 618, have.
  Inserted entry between Hosel and Hye:
Hure, 95, hire.

p.51 Pencilled in margin: 'mickle' to Mekele:
Mekele, 333, much. mickle
  Pencilled in margin: 'schreft' to Schryff:
Schryff, 647, confession. shreft

p.52 Added 'quelled' to Y-quellude:
Y-quellude, 182, killed, quelled.