From Typographical Antiquities : or The History of Printing in England Scotland and Ireland : containing Memoirs of our Ancient Printers, and a Register of the Books Printed by Them (1816) by Joseph Ames, William Herbert, Rev. Thomas Dibdin, London : John Murray. Chapters on Edward Whitchurch and William Baldwin, Vol III, pp. 481-506.

[ The entry on the 16th century printer Edward Whitchurch has been included here due to his participation in printing works by William Baldwin, (1), (2) (3) and (4). Baldwin worked for Whitchurch, possibly first as a corrector and then as a compositor. Only one work is known to have been printed by William Baldwin as a printer in his own right.]

p.483 ]

Mark of Edward Whitchurch, 16th century printer

Edward Whitchurch.

HYTCHURCH, Esquire, is styled by Ames King's Printer ; but, says Herbert, though he was joined in the same patent with Grafton, for printing Bibles and books of divine service, it does not appear that he was ever so ; either as printer to Edward, whilst prince of Wales, or afterwards when king of England, &c. He was originally brought up a merchant, and was concerned with Grafton in procuring the Bible to be revised, if not translated into English, and so printed abroad ; of which you may see more particularly under Grafton : p.439, note, ante. Ames says, that Grafton and Whitchurch continued in friendship, and partners together for many years ; but it does not appear that they printed in partnership after the year 1541 ; and from that time they seem to have had separate interests : see p. 433, ante. They were in trouble together in 1541, on account of the act of the Six Articles, for not having been confessed, and were both excluded from pardon in Queen Mary's proclamation at her coronation, in 1554.* Neither of them appears to have done any business in the printing way, at least publicly, during the reign of Queen Mary.

   See Fox's Martyrology, vol. ii. p. 532, vol. iii. p. 95.

      After the martyrdom of Archbishop Cranmer, Ames says that Whitchurch married the Archbishop's widow. Her name was ANN ; she was the Archbishop's second wife, whom he married while he p.484 / was ambassador in Germany. She had for her subsistance an abbey in Nottinghamshire, which King Henry, upon Dr. Butt's motion, without the Archbishop's knowledge, granted to him and his heirs. She was living towards the end of Archbishop Parker's time.*

  See Strype's Cranmer, p. 418. It is however material to observe, that Strype says nothing about Whitchurch's marrying Cranmer's widow.

      Whitchurch lived at first, at the well and two buckets in S. Martin Le Grand ; afterwards in S. Mary Aldermary churchyard ; and lastly at the sun in Fleet-street. He printed a book in 1560 ; after which time I find nothing of him. His mark may be seen at the top of this memoir.
      The earliest efforts of his press may be supposed to have appeared in the B
IBLES of 1537, 1539, and 1540 ; particularly described at page 434-41, ante : and in the NEW TESTAMENTS of 1538 and 1540, mentioned at p. 436-41, ante: also in the PRYMER of 1540 : see p. 441.

1535.   THE BYBLE IN ENGLYSSHE, &c. 1540. Folio.
    See p. 441. ' Prynted by Edwarde Whytechurche, Cum priu.—solum.
MDXL.' At the end, 'Fynisshed in Apryll, Anno. M.CCCCCXL.'†   This edition has ' ¶ A prologue or preface made by the moost reuerende father in God Thomas (Cranmer) Archbyshop of Canturbury Metropolytan and Prymate of Englande.' It begins, ' For two sondrye sortes of people,' &c.‡   The F, a flourished capital. At the end, ' God saue the Kynge.' and H R in flourished capitals. A fine copy of this

   Lewis mentions another edition as printed this year also, which I apprehend must be a misprint of the date for 1541 ; seeing L. Cromwell's arms are said to be defaced in the title-pages of both the Old and New Testaments, who was not sent to the Tower before July, 1540. This mistake appears further to be confirmed by Lewis himself ; for after mentioning a copy in the Harleian library, ' said to be Fynyshed in May MCCCCCXLI. and printede by Rycharde Grafton,' he adds, ' There is another there of the same year, printed by Edward Withchurche, cum privilegio—solum. 1540. On which Mr. Wanley makes this remark. ' Both these two last mentioned Bibles I take to be of the same edition,' &c. Hist. of Eng. Trans. of the Bible, p. 134, and p. 137. HERBERT.
    ‡   Mr Lewis makes the beginning thus: ' The whole scripture of the Bible is divided into two testaments,' &c. but I have not met with any copy beginning so.' Ibid. p. 136. HERBERT.

p.485 /

Bible, printed on vellum, with the cuts and blooming letters all curiously illuminated, was presented to K. Henry VIII. by Anthony Marlar of London, haberdasher,*  and is now in the British Museum. Mr. Lewis was mistaken in ascribing this circumstance to another edition, printed this year by Petit and Redman, for T. Berthelet. A copy was in Herbert's collection.

  On this account probably he had an exclusive grant to print the Bible in English. Rymer's Foedera, vol. xiv. p. 745. But we do not find any Bible printed by either him or his assigns. Dated 12 Mar. 1542. HERBERT.

      No doubt they are the same edition : each partner taking a particular number, and affixing his own name to them, as his exclusive property. A ms. note of Gough, copied from Baker, observes that, on the first leaf is written : ' This booke is presented unto youre most excellent highnes by your loving faithfull & obedient subject & daylie Oratour Anthonye Marler of London haberdasher.' ' Who (says Baker) this haberdasher was, I wish to know. He must have been a considerable man that could make such a present to a prince, and seems to have been a sharer in the charge of the impression.' Baker's MS. Letter to T. Hearn.

1536. PORTIFORIUM SEC. VS. SARUM. 1541. Folio.
      ' Portiforium secundum vsum Sarum, nouiter impressum, et à plurimis purgatum mendis, in quo nomen Romano Pontifici falso ascriptum omittitur, una cum aliis quæ Christianissimo nostri Regis Statuto repugnant. Excusum Londini per Eduardum Whytchurch, 1541. Cum priuilegio—solum.' Again 1544.†

  This article is preceded, in Herbert, by
    1537. ' T
HE ORDRE OF THE ALMOSE of Lyons, translated out of French into Englishe. Printed with Grafton. 1540, Duodecimo; and succeeded by mention made of an impression of the GREAT BIBLE of 1541 (see p. 443, note, ante); which probably is the same edition as the one printed by R. Grafton, in May 1541 ; with their names changed, as intimated by Mr. Wanly. Grafton printed another edition in Nouember ; ' ouerseen by the bishops of Duresme and Rochester ;' but it does not appear that Whitchurch had any concern in it.
    To this may be added,
    1538. 'A
PROCLAMATION for the bible to be had in euery church.' With R. Grafton. '——— concerning certain holydays.' See p. 444, ante.
    1539. 'A
NEW BOKE OF PRESIDENTS, 1543.' Quarto. ' These books to be sell at the west p.486 / dore of Pauls, by Wylliam Tylotson.' supposed to be gathered (adds Herbert) by Thos. Phayer: see Wood's Athen. Oxon. (Edit. Bliss.) vol. i. col. 317.
   1540. ' T
HE WORKES OF CHIRURGERYE by M. John Vigon. (1543.) Again, 1550. Folio

1542. THE BOKE OF CHYLDREN. 1544. Sextodecimo.
   ' The boke of chyldren. The regyment of lyfe. A treatyse of the pestilence.' These are the running titles. All composed by Thomas Phayer. The leaves of these three medical pieces are numbered separately, but the signatures of the two latter are progressive. The colophon, ' ¶ Jmprynted at London on the south syde of Aldermary churche By Edwarde Whytchurche. 1544. Cum priuilegio—solum per septennium.' I have read that part of this work which relates to the management of children, and it is curious and rather interesting. A copy is in the Luton collection.*

  Herbert has only copied Ames in the following:
   1542. ' T
HE EARL OF PURLILIAS PRECEPTS OF WAR, Englished by Philip Betham.' 1544. Octavo.

1543. TOXOPHILUS. 1545.
      ' T
OXOPHILUS, The schole of shootinge conteyned in tvvo bookes. To all Gentlemen and yomen of Englande, pleasaunte for theyr pastyme to rede, & profitable for theyr use to folow, both in war and peace.' It is dedicated, ' To the moste graciouse, and our most drad Soueraigne lord, Kyng Henrie the viij. by the grace of God, kyng of Englande, Fraunce & Irelande ; Defender of the faythe, and of the churche of Englande and also of Irelande in earth supreme head, next vnder Christ, be al health victorie, & felicitie.' And concludes, ' Your Graces most bounden Scholer Roger Ascham.' It has a frontispiece prefixed of the king's arms on a shield crowned ; and having on each side a riband. That on the right with this distich,

' Hac fusa est nostris Babilonica pestis ab oris :
     Hac praua ad Stygias dogmata trusa plagas.
On the other,
' Hoc Scotus & Gallus fracti domitiq; iacebunt,
     Subiecti Domino colla superba suo.'
Beneath the shield, on the right, is a clasped book, on the cover of which is VE  RI  TAS ; and on the left is a bow and arrow, behind p.487 / which is VIN CIT. At the bottom is a tablet, which supports the whole, with the following stanza :
' Reioyse Englande, be gladde and merie,
ROTHE ouercometh thyne enemyes all,
  The Scot, the Frencheman, the Pope, and heresie,
VERCOMMED by Trothe, haue had a fall :
  Sticke to the Trothe, and euermore thou shall
  Through Christ, King Henry, the Boke and the Bowe,
  All maner of enemies, quite ouerthrowe.'
      In the lower corners of this tablet are the letters I. D. the initals [lit.] of the engraver's name. On the back of this frontispiece are Latin verses, by Walter Haddon ; and after the dedication, the author's address ' To the Gentlemen,' &c. by way of preface, as in a modern edition of Ascham's English works, published by Mr. James Bennet, some time a schoolmaster at Hoddesdon. On Mr. Ascham's presenting this book to the king, he settled a pension on him of 10l. a year for life, as the said Mr. Bennet intimates, in his life of Ascham, prefixed to his edition aforesaid. This FIRST EDITION of Toxophilus contains Y, in fours, besides the prefixes. The colophon, ' Londini. In ædibus Edouardi Whytchurch. Cum priuilegio—solum. 1545.' A copy was in Herbert's collection.

1544. THE PRIMER IN ENGLISH. 1545. Quarto.
      The copy of this impression which was in Ratcliff's possession ( Bibl. Ratcl. no. 1158) was purchased by Gustavus Brander.

1545. THE PRIMER, ENGL. LAT. 1546. Octavo.
      ' The Primer in Englishe & Latin set forth by the kynges maiestie and his clergie, to be taught, learned, and read : and none other to be vsed through out all his dominions. 1546.' In a compartment, with the sun at top, and his mark at bottom. After the kalendar, with an almanack for xvi. years, is ' A Preface made by the Kynges moste excellent maiestie into this his primer Booke.' Then, ' An iniunction—. Geuen at our Palaice of Westminster the. vi. daie of May in the. xxxvii yeare of our raigne.' On the last leaf, ' The copy of the kynges bill assigned.' On the back, is a cut of the sun, with ' SOL ORIENS MVNDO,' on a riband ; under it, ' Imprinted at London p.488 / in Fletestrete at the signe of the Sunne, ouer against the conduyte, by—the. ix. day of Januari. M.D.XLVI. Cum priuilegio solum.' In the collection of Dr. Lort.

1546. THE REGIMENT OF LYFE. 1546. 24mo.
      ' The regiment of Lyfe, wherunto is added a treatise of the pestilence, with the booke of speciall remedies (experienced) for all diseases, griefes, impediments and defects often happening in young children, newly corrected and enlarged, by Thomas Phayer.' Colophon, ' Jmprinted—in fletestrete at the signe of the Sunne,——the last daye of June Cum priuilegio—solum.'

1547. YNY IHYVYR , &c. 1546. Octavo.
      For an account of this very curious and uncommon book, Herbert was entirely indebted to Ames ; whose description is thus :

' Yny Ihyvyr hwnnylraethir. Gwyd' or kymraeg.
  Kalandyr. Ygredo, ney bynkeu yr ffyd' gatholig.
  Ypader, ney wed'i yr arglwyd.' Ydeng air dedyf.
  Saith Rinwed yr egglwys. Y. kampey arveradwy ar Gwydieu
gochladwy ae keingeu. M.D.XLVI.'  It has Whitchurch's compartment, but not his name. Sixteen leaves. This book shews the Welsh kalendar, the creed, or rules of the catholic faith, the prayer, or Lord's prayer, the ten commandments, and the seven good properties of the church, and the usual ways of praying and singing. Penes W. Jones, Esq.

1548. THE TURKES CHRONICLES. 1546. Octavo.
      ' A shorte treatise vpon the Turkes Chronicles, compyled by Paulus Jouius byshop of Nucerne, and dedicated to Charles the. v. Emperour. Drawen oute of the Jtalyen tong in to Latyne, by Franciscus Niger Bassianates. And translated out of Latyne by Peter Ashton. The contentes of the boke. The begynnyng of the turkysshe empyre. The lyues of the Turkyshe Emperours. The araye and discipline of the Turkysh warfare described & set forth most exactly, the sayd Paulus beyng the authour.

p.489 /

Wake vp now, Christiens out of your slumbre ;
   Of the Turkes to recoure your long lost glory,
Feare not theyr strength, theyr power, ne numbre,
   Sith ryght, & not myght, atchyueth the victory.
This title is without any compartment. The back of the leaf is filled with other verses by Thomas Cicell. It is dedicated ' To the right honorable sir Rafe Sadler knight, Maister of the kinges maiesties great wardrobe, Gentilman of his highnes pryuie chambre, and one of his graces most Honorable pryuie counsayle.' The chronicle contains 144 leaves. Colophon, ' Imprinted—in Fletestrete at the signe of the Sunne—— By——. The. xii. day of Auguste,——M.D.XLVI. Cum priuilegio—solum.'   On the back, the cut of the sun, with ' SOL ORIENS MUNDO.' as in p. 487. A copy was in Herbert's collection.

1549. CERTAYNE SERMONS. 1547. Quarto.
     ' Certayne Sermons or Homilies appoynted by the kynges Maiestie to be declared, and redde in churches, by all Persones, Vycars or Curates, euery Sonday in their Churches, were they haue Cure. Anno 1547.'  In his compartment, with the sun at top, and his mark on the sill. At the end, ' Imprinted—in Fletestrete, at the signe of the Sunne, ouer agaynste the Conduyte by —, the. xx. daye of August,— 1547. Cum priuilegio—solum.'  In the collection of Herbert. These ' Homilies' were printed by Grafton the last day of July: see p.456, ante ; and Maittaire, vol. iii. p. 397.

1550. BALDWYN'S MORAL PHYLOSOPHIE. 1547. Sextodecimo.
      ' A treatise of Moral Phylosophie, contaynyng the sayinges of the wyse. Gathered and Englyshed by Wylm Baldwyn.' In a neat compartment, with the sun at top, terminusses on the sides, and his mark at bottom. It is dedicated ' To the right honorable Edwarde Beauchampe, Earle of Hartforde.' [Son to the Protector.] Then, a prologue to the reader. Contains besides, signature R, in eights ; half sheets. Colophon, ' Imprinted—in Fletestrete,——the. xx. daye of Januarie,——1547.* Cum priuilegio—solum, per septennium.' A copy in Herbert's collection.

  ' By the different orthography, &c. of this book from Mr. Ames's, it seems that there p.490 / were two editions of it published the same day, octavo and sixteens. Indeed it appears to have been well received, as it has passed through several editions. HERBERT. Consult also Hist. Engl. Poet. vol. iii. p. 317, note r. ' The work originally (says Mr. Haslewood) formed by Baldwin passed through three editions: then followed the enlargement by Palfreyman, printed by Tottel in 1564. The words of the title 'fourth time' [in some impressions] was continually repeated in subsequent editions. That of 1579 is without printer's name or colophon. Again, ' Imprinted at London by Thomas Este, 1584.' Again, ' at London, printed by Robert Robinson, dwelling in Feter Lane neere Holborne, 1587.' According to Brand's Catalogue, by Whitchurch, without date. The latest edition I have is also without date. ' London, printed by Thomas Snodham,' and described as ' the sixt time since inlarged by.' An edition 'by Richard Bishop, 1651,' and probably many others.' Censur. Literaria, vol. ix. p. 376-8, note.

      ' A uery brefe treatise, ordrely declaring the principal partes of phisick, that is to saye : Thynges natural. Thynges not naturall. Thynges agaynst nature. Gathered, and sette forth by Christopher Langton. Anno dnin.
M.D.XLVII.' In the same compartment as the last article. On the back are the following verses by ' ¶ Wylm Baldwyn :

¶ Who so desyreth health got, to preserue :
And lost, to procure : ought chefely to knowe
Such naturall thynges, as therto maye serue :
Great knowlege wherof, this boke wil him show.' &c.
      After a table of the contents, is Langton's epistle ' To the right high & mighty Prince Edwarde, Duke of Somerset, Protector of the kynges maiest. realmes & dominions, and gouernor of his Royall person.' It is diuided into four books ; and contains M 4, in eights, besides the prefixes. Colophon, ' ¶ Imprinted—in Fletestrete——the. x. day of April. Cum priuilegio—solum.' A copy in Herbert's collection.

*1553. LAMENTACION OF A SYNNER . 1548. Octavo.
      ' The Lamentacion of a Synner : Made by the moste vertuouse Lady, Quene Caterine : bewailynge the Ignorance of her blind Life:' with a preface by secretary Cecil, and by him ' Set foorth, and put in Print, at the instant Desire of the right gracious Lady, Caterine

  Preceded, in Herbert, by
    1552, ' D
EUOUT PSALMES AND COLLECTES.' 1547. Octavo. From Baker's interleaved Maunsell's Catalogue, p. 87. These seem (says Herbert) to be the same as printed by Tho. Berthelet, in 1545. See Eccl. Memorials, vol. ii. p. 131.

p.491 /

Duchesse of Suffolke, and the earnest Request of the Right Honorable Lord William Parre, Marquesse of Northampton. Imprinted March. 28. 1548. Cum priuilegio—solum.'  See Royal and Noble Authors, Park's edition. This tract was printed by John Alde in 1563, and in the Monument of Matrons, lamp. ii. p. 37. See also Catalogue of Harleian Pamphlets, no. 140.

1554. PARAPHRASE OF ERASMUS. 1548. Folio.
      ' The first tome or volvme of the Paraphrase of Erasmus vpon the newe testamente. Enpriented—in Fletestrete—the last daie of Januarie. Anno Domini. 1548.' In a compartment with the king's arms at top, terminusses on the sides ; and at bottom the arms of queen Katharine Parr ; E, and W, on separate tablets adjoining. It has prefixed to the whole, a preface addressed ' unto the Kynges Maiestee.' another ' To the Jentill christian reader :' Also an epistle dedicatory ' To the moste vertuous Ladie Quene Katerine dowager.' Each of them by Nicholas Udall. Before S. Mark is another dedication to the Queen dowager, by Tho. Key. Another to her by Nich. Udall, before S. Luke, concerning the translation. Again, others to her by the same, before S. John, and the Actes of the apostles. The leaves of each of these books are numbered separately. Perhaps worked at different presses, or published as fast as they were printed. We learn that they were translated by several hands (that of S. John by the princess Mary) and probably Mr. Udall supervised the whole. At the end* is a cut of the woman clothed with the sun, &c. as Rev.
XIII. but no colophon.

  Ames's copy seems to have been perfected from the subsequent edition of 1551. H.

      ' The seconde tome or volume of the Paraphrase of Erasmus vpon the newe testament: conteynyng the Epistles of S. Paul, and other the apostles. Whereunto is added a Paraphrase vpon the Reuelation of S. John. Jmpriented—in Fletestrete—the
XVI. daye of August. Cum priuilegio—solum. Anno do. 1549.' In the same compartment as the former tome. This volume begins with a dedication to the king, by desire, in behalf of ' the Translatours and Printer,' by ' Myles Couerdall:' who seems to have been the translator of the epistles to p.492 / the Romans, the Corinthians, and the Galatians. The rest of S. Paul's epistles were translated by John Olde, at the request of his friend Whitchurch, as appears by his address ' to the Christian reader;' wherein he informs us that he ' tooke in hande to translate them, at such seldom leasures, as I possibly could from mine other prophane trauailes, incident to my drudging vocation, spare : and now at last haue finished them.'*

  From hence it is thought, adds Herbert, that he was a corrector of Whitchurch's press. On consulting Ames, p. 206, I find his account of this second volume not wholly incorporated by Herbert ; and the reader may probably demand a fuller statement. Ames thus observes: " The next year was printed the second tome of this paraphrase in English, with the following title: 'The second tome or volume of the paraphrase of Erasmus upon the new testament : conteyning the epistles of St. Paul and other the apostles ; whereunto is added a paraphrase upon the revelation of St. John, XVI day of August.' The translation of this tome, or however of part of it, was procured by Whitchurche to compleat the new testament, as appears by what the translator, John Olde, says in his preface to the Christian reader. ' Forasmuche as every pryest under a certain degree in scholes is bounden by the kynges majesties most gracious injunctions to have provided by a daye lymited, for his own study and erudition, the whole paraphrase of D. Erasmus upon the new testament, both in Latin and English: and where I heard nevertheless in the begynnynge of this last somer by the pryntour, my very hertie good frend Edwarde Whitchurche, that the paraphrases upon seven of Paul's epistles, that is to saye, to the Ephesians, Philippians, both the pistles to the Thessalonians, both to Timothie, and the pistle to Philemon, were neyther translated ready to the prynte, ne yet appoynted certaynly to be translated of any man, so as the fore mencioned injunction should be lyke in this case to be frustrate of his due execution—— I tooke in hande to translate them at such seldom leasures, as I possibly could from mine other prophane travailes, incident to my drudinge vocation, spare ; and now at last have finished them.' The same person also translated the seven canonical epistles at the request of Whitchurche, as we find by his preface to them, in which he says, ' That in the latter ende of thys last yeare he toke in hande, at the request of his special good frende Edwarde Whitchurche, printour, to translate the paraphrases of Erasmus upon certain of Paul's epistles.——And that now at the like request he had made the lyke enterpryse to translate the canonical epistles,' &c." Ames's copy of this second volume was imperfect. We must not however omit the following articles, which, in Herbert, precede the above:
    1555. ' M
ELANCTHON his waying & considering of the Interim, translated by John Rogers.' 1 August, 1548; but at the end, the 5th of August. Contains 28 leaves. Octavo. From Ames.
    1556. ' E
DMOND ALLEN his catechisme.' 1548. Octavo. A rare book ; requiring a more particular description.

He translated also the Catholic p.493 / epistles, dedicated ' To the right Excellent and most vertuous Lady Anne, Duchesse of Somerset.' Erasmus wrote no further. Then follows ' ¶ A paraphrase or comentarie vpon the Reuelacion of S. John,——brefely expounded by—Leo Jude, a minister in the churche of Tigury, and translated out of the highe Duche by Edmonde Alen.' The leaves of the epistles, &c. are numbered separately, as the gospels, &c. had been last year. On the back of the last leaf is the same cut as at the end of the first tome. A copy of each volume, described by Herbert as a short and thick folio, was in Herbert's collection.

1557. BOOKE OF COMMON PRAYER, &c. 1549. Folio.
      ' The booke of the common prayer and administracion of the Sacramentes, and other rites and ceremonies of the churche : after the vse of the Churche of England. Londini in officina Edouardi Whitchurche. Cum priuilegio—solum. Anno Do. 1549. Mense Maii.'*

  Another impression is of the date of 7 March ; which Mr. Heber possesses. See also Eccl. Mem. vol. ii. p. 87 : a third has the date of the XVI of June ; of which Herbert possessed a copy.

In the same compartment as the paraphrase on the gospels and epistles. The calendar contains no holydays but such as are at this time observed in the church, except 'Magdalen.' Both morning and evening service begin with the Lord's prayer. The litany retains the clause, ' From the tyrannye of the bishop of Rome,' &c. The catechism ends with the answer to ' What desirest thou of God in this prayer?' The ceremony of the ring in the celebration of matrimony is thus: ' ¶ With this ring J thee wed : This golde and siluer J thee geue: with my body J thee wurship :' &c. Contains 158 leaves besides the preface, &c. prefixed. Colophon, ' Imprinted—in Fletestrete,——by EdVVarde VVhitchurche. The fourth daye of Maye,—1549.' On the last leaf: 'The Kinges Maiestie, by the aduyse of his most deare vncle the Lorde Protector and other his highnes Counsell, streightly chargeth and commaundeth, that no maner of person do sell this present booke vnbounde, aboue the price of. ii. Shyllynges &. ii. pence the piece. And the same bound in paste
p.494 / or in boordes, not aboue the price of three shyllynges and. VIII. pence the piece. God saue the King.' A copy was in Herbert's collection.* This same year, 29th December, Whitchurch published ' THE BYBLE IN ENGLISHE ;' of which a copy is in the Bodleian libary.

  On the leaf preceding the title-page of the copy in the Advocates library, at Edinburgh, is the following note, in the hand-writing of the Revd. Robert Keith : ' This is the first and [most] valuable edition, and presumed to be the only copy of it within Scotland.' Herbert's MS. Mem. See also Maittaire; vol. iii. p. 574, note g.

1558. PSALMES OF DAUID. 1549. Octavo.
      ' All such psalmes of Dauid as Thomas Sternholde, late grome of the kynges maiestyes robes, did in his lyfe tyme drawe into Englysshe metre.' Dedicated by himself to King Edward VI. Fifty-one in number ; but without musical notes. In the collection of Dr. Farmer. See Warton's Hist. Engl. Poet. vol. iii. p. 167. F
IRST EDITION,† and exceedingly rare. Herbert had an edition, without date, containing only nineteen psalms.

  Herbert has a previous short notice of the PSALTER OF DAVID, 1549. Quarto. referring to the dateless one (hereafter described) by the same printer.

1559. FUNERALL ORATYON. 1549. Octavo.
      ' ¶ A funerall oratyon made the. xiiij. day of January by John Hoper, the yere of our saluation, 1549. vpon the texte wrytyne in the Reuelatyone of Sayncte Johne. Ca. 14. ¶ 1. Thessalo. 4. Murne not as other do which haue no hope.' His text, ' J hearde a voice from heauen,' &c. Contains 20 leaves. Colophon, ' ¶ Jmprented—by—at the signe of the Sonne in flet strete. 1549. Cum priuilegio—solum.' See Eccl. Mem. vol. ii. p. 197. A copy was in Herbert's collection. Mr. Heber also possesses it. In this same year Whitchurch printed the H
OMELIES in quarto, as in 1547: see p. 456, ante.

     ' A copye of a letter contayning certayne news, and the articles or requestes of the Deuonshire and Cornyshe rebells,
M.D.XLIX.' Ends ' ¶ By us Humfrey Arundell, Berry, Thomas Underhyll, John Sloe- p.495 / man, William Segar, chief captaynes ; John Thompson, pryeste ; Henry Bray, maior of Bodman ; Henry Lee, maior Torriton ; Roger Barret, preist ; the four governours of the campes.' To which is annexed :
      ' A
MESSAGE sent by the kynges maiestie, to certain of his people assembled in Deuonshire.' 1549. 12mo. From Ames, p. 207.

1561. INCARNATION OF CHRIST. 1549. Octavo.
      A Lesson of the Incarnation of Christ. By Bishop Hooper. Bibl. Bodl. vol. i. p. 595.

1562. THE BIBLE IN ENGLISHE. 1550. Quarto.
      ' The Bible in Englishe, that is to saye. The content of al the holy scripture, both of the olde, and nevve Testament, accordinge to the translacion that is appointed to be redde in the Churches.* Prynted by Edvvarde vvhytchurche. Cum priuilegio—solum.
M.D.L.' It begins with Archbishop Cranmer's ' Prologue to the reader.' Then, ' ¶ The summe & content of all the holy Scripture.' Then, ' ¶ The names of all the bookes of the Bible.' It has title-pages also before Josua, The Psalmes, and ' The volume of the bookes called Hagiographa.'†  Likewise 'The newe testament in english, translated after the Greke, contayning these bookes. Mathevve.' &c. The first chapter begins on the back of this title-page. A copy was in Herbert's collection.

  Lewis was mistaken in intimating that this was after Coverdale's translation. See his Hist. &c. p. 183.
    †   See note * at page 310 ante.

      ' An epistle both of GoDLy Consolacion and also of aduertisement, written by John Caluine the pastour & preacher of Geneua, to the right noble prince EDvvarde Duke of Somerset, before the tyme or knoweledge had of his trouble, but delyuered to the sayde Duke, in the time of his trouble, and so translated out of frenshe by the same Duke.' It is introduced by an anonymous address ' To the Christian reader.' Contains E 2, in eights. Calvin's epistle is dated
p.496 / ' The. xxii. of Octobre,—1549.' Colophon, ' Imprinted—by Edward whitchurche, the. v. daye of Aprill. 1550. Cum priuilegio—solum.' A copy in Herbert's collection.

1564. ALLEN'S CATECHISME. 1550. Sextodecimo.
      Maunsell, p. 28. Quære, says Herbert (in ms.), if not the same as 'A
SHORTE CATECHISME. A briefe and godly bringinge vp of youth, in the knowlege and comaundementes of God in fayth, prayer and other articles, necessary to be knowen of all those that wilbe partakers of the kyngdom of Jesus Christ ; set forth in maner of a Dialogue, ¶ Marc. x. pointy hand Let the chyldren come vnto me, & forbidde them not, for vnto suche belongeth the kyngdom of God.' It is printed on secretary types, of different sizes ; contains L, in eights, half sheets. At the end are some Hebrew letters, at equal distances, not divided into words, like the Alexandrian copy of the New Testament. '—Jmprynted the year after the creation of the worlde 5525. And after the byrthe of our Sauiour 1550.' On a single leaf annexed, ' Amende the errours thus.' These are eleven in number. Underneath, ' Imprinted at London by Edwarde whitchurche. Cum Priuilegio solum.' 1550. A copy in Herbert's collection.

1565. VIGON'S CHIRURGERY. 1550. Octavo.
      ' ¶ The most excellent worckes of Chirurgery, made and set forth by maister John Vigon, head Chirurgin of our tyme in Italy, traunslated into Englishe.* Wherunto is added an exposition of straunge termes and vnknowen symples belonging vnto the arte. ¶Jmprynted—wyth the Kynges most graciouse priuelege for seuen yeres.—Anno 1550.' See Strype's Eccl. Mem. vol. ii. p. 268. In Mr. Heber's collection.

  By Barth. Traheron, as appears by the epistle dedicatory, ' To the earnest Fauourer of all good, & godly learning, master Richard Tracie.'

      A treatise of moral philosophy, by William Baldwin. My copy (says Herbert) wants the title. See it in 1547, p. 489, ante. Colophon, ' ¶ Imprinted—in Fletestrete—the fyrst day of Februarye——
M.D.L. Cum priuilegio—solum.'

p.497 /

      ' The fourme of common prayers vsed in the churches of Geneva.' This is the head-title, my copy wanting the general one. After which is an address to the reader by Tho. Broke ; wherein we are informed that the whole of this book, except a few graces at the end, was translated from the French by ' master Wylliam Huicke, a man of Godlye learninge, and right honest conuersacion——why e [lit.] he was at Geneua.' This epistle is dated, 'The. iii. of June, 1550.' The common prayers, with the manner of administring the sacraments, the form of celebrating marriage, and the visitation of the sick, conclude on fol. lv. then on fol. lvi. this title-page.
      ' T
HE CATECHISME OF GENEUA (that is to saye) a fourme or manner to teache & instruct the children, in Christes church, their christen faith and religion : made in maner of a dyalogue, where the minister demaundeth questions, and the chylde maketh aunswere. By John Caluine. The. ii. Chapter to the Ephesians. The doctrine of the prophetes and apostles, is the sure grounde and foundacion of Christes Churche.' At the end is ' A Table to fynde out that place of the Catechisme, which the minister declareth euery Sondaye.' N. B. 55 sundays. The whole contains fol. CCX. ' Imprinted——the. vii. day of June. 1550. Cum priuilegio——solum.' A copy was in Herbert's collection.

1568. PARAPHRASES OF ERASMUS. 1551. Folio.
      ' The first tome or volume of the Paraphrases of Erasmus vpon the newe testament, conteinyng the fower Euangelistes, with the Actes of the Apostles: eftsones conferred with the latine and throughly corrected as it is by the kinges highnes iniunctions commaunded to be had in euerie churche of this royalme. There is also added in the ende of the booke, an exacte table according to the notes in the margin of all speciall matters and sentences any where menctoned throughout the whole worke, with a perfecte concordaunce diligently gathered by Nicolas Vdall. Anno Domini. 1551.' in the same compartment as the former edition, 1548. The sacred
p.498 / text in this edition is printed on roman type, and quotations in the paraphrase on Italian ; the leaves also are numbered progressively to fol. ccccccviii. besides the prefaces prefixed, and the table or concordance at the end. Colophon, ' ¶ The ende of the first Tome of the Paraphrasis, Printed at London by Edwarde Whitchurche. Cum priuilegio Regali ad Jmprimendum Solum.' A copy with Herbert.*

    *   ' Whitchurch had a patent by 4 Edw. VI. to print Peter Martyr's tract De Eucharistia, et Disputatio de Eucharistia ; and the English Bible, either the greater or less volume, for 7 years.' Herbert MS. Mem.   

1569. PSALMES OF DAUID . 1551. Sextodecimo.
      ' Psalmes of Dauid drawen into English metre by Thomas Sterneholde. Cum priu. ad impr. sol. Imprinted at London by Edward Whitchurche Anno domini 1551.' Contains G, in eights. See a particular account of this and of other impressions in the Censura Literaria, vol. x. p. 4-21. The present was unknown to Herbert. He describes, however, a subsequent one, of the date of 1552, thus :
      ' All such Psalmes of Dauid as Thomas Sternholde late Grome of the Kynges Maiestyes Robes did in his Life-tyme.' With his Dedication to K. Edw. VI. 13. May. in Duodecimo.†  Consult also the interesting article in Mr. Bliss's edition of Wood's Athn. Oxon. vol. i. col. 183, &c.

  This, as well as the former edition of 1549, is without musical notes ; however, as it appears by the dedication, that he sometimes sang them before his majesty, it may be presumed they were then set to music. See Eccl. Memorials, vol. ii. p. 86. HERBERT.

‡ 1572. BYBLE IN ENGLISH. 1553. Folio.
      ' The byble in English, that is to say, the contente of all the holy scripture, bothe of the olde and new Testament accordying to the translation that is appointed to be read in Churches pointy hand Jmprinted——by Edwarde Whytchurche. Cum priuilegio——solum.' In a com-

  Preceded, in Herbert, by the following :
   1570. ' T
HE BOKE OF COMMON PRAYER and administration of the sacramentes and other rites and ceremonies in the churche of Englande.—Cum privilegio—solum.' 1552. Folio. Printed also by R. Grafton.
   1571. ' T
HE PRIMER AND CATECHISME set forthe by the Kinges Highnes and his Clergy, to be taught, learned, and redde by all his louing Subiectes, al other set apart.' 1552. Octavo. In Herbert's collection.

p.499 /

partment composed of different scripture histories. Other title-pages are prefixed before the book of Josua, the Psalmes, the Hagiographa, and ' ¶ The Newe Testament in englishe translated after the Greke, conteyning these Bokes. ¶ The Gospelles, &c. pointy hand Printed in the yeare of our Lorde God M.D.LIII.' On the back begins ' A Table to finde the Epistles & Gospels vsually read in the Church accordinge vnto the boke of Common prayer.' In St. Paul's library.
      The same, with R. Grafton. In the collection of Mr. Douce.

1573. REGIMENT OF LIFE . 1560. Octavo.
      ' The regiment of life, wherevnto is added a treatise of the pestilence, with the Booke of children, newly corrected and enlarged by Thomas Phaire.' Contains x, in eights. ' ¶ Jmprinted
M.D.LX. ¶ Cum priuilegio——solum.' In Herbert's collection.

1574. PSALMES OF DAUID . Without date. Octavo.
      ' Certayne Psalmes chosen out of the Psalter of Dauid, and drawen into Englishe Metre by Thomas Sternhold grome of ye kynges Maiesties Roobes. Excudebat Londini Edouardus Whitchurche. Cum priuilegio—solum.' *  In a compartment with the sun at top, and his mark at bottom. Dedicated ' To the most noble and Vertuous kynge——Edward the. vi.' &c. Contains D in eights. The psalms end on D 6. On the next leaf is the same cut as at the end of Erasmus's paraphrases, 1548 and 1549. The last leaf blank. A copy in Herbert's collection.

  This edition doubtless was prior to that of 1549, as it contains only 19 psalms. These are the first five, 20, 25, 27, 29, 32, 33, 41, 49, 73, 78, 103, 120, 122, 138   HERBERT.

1575. BOOKE OF COMMON PRAYER. Without date. Quarto.
      ' The booke of common prayer, and adminystracion of ye Sacraments, and other rytes and Ceremonies, &c. in the Churche of Englande Londini in off—— Cum pr.' &c. On the next leaf ' The Preface.' The text of the Common Prayer ends on P, in eights. Then ' The Psalter or Psalmes of Dauid, after ye translacion of ye greate Byble, poynted as it shalbe sayde or songe in Churches.'

p.500 /

This commences with fresh signatures, extending to K iiij, in eights. Then, in fours, to the last leaf of the Psalms : aa i. The back blank. Next, ' Certain godly prayers, to be used on sondrye purposes :' ending on aa viij. ' Imprinted, &c. by Edward Whytchurche.' From Herbert's MS. Memoranda.

1576. FORTESCU DE POLITICA ADMINISTRATIONE, &c. Without date. Sextodecimo.
      ' Prenobilis militis, cognomento Fortescu, qui temporibus Henrici sexti floruit, de politica administratione, et legibus ciuilibus florentissimi regni Anglie commentarius.   ¶ Excusum Londini tipis Edwardi Whitechurche, et veneunt in edibus Henrici Smyth Bibliopole. Cum Priuilegio—solum.' Contains 74 leaves, including a table at the end. Mr. Douce possesses a copy.

1577. PSALTER OF DAUID. Without date. Octavo.
      ' The psalter of Dauid in English truly translated out of Latyn, euery psalme hauing his argument before, declaring briefely thentent and substaunce of the whole psalme. Whereunto is annexed in thende certayne godly prayers thoroweout the whole yere, commenly called collettes.' In red and black ink, with a table ; then the prayers called collectes ; then the songe of the three children in the ouen, Magnificat, song of Zachary the profete, Nunc dimittis, the song of Augustine and Ambrose, the crede or symbole of doctour Athanasius dayly red in the churche, called Quicunque vult, somewhat differently expressed than now. With it are bound, ' The Bokes of Solomon, namely, Prouerbia, Ecclesiastes, Sapientia, Ecclesiasticus or Jesus the son of Syrach.' In the collection of the late William Bayntun. Herbert notices another edition, without date, printed for Whitchurch by Humphrey Powel, in quarto.

1578. BAULDEWIN'S MORAL PHILOSOPHYE. Without date. Octavo.
      ' A treatise of Morall phylosophye &c. by William Bauldewin.' In the same compartment as the edition 1547. Contains Q4, in eights. ' ¶ Jmprintedin fletestrete.Cum priuilegiosolum.' In Herbert's collection.

p.501 /

1579. ENGLYSHE AND WELSHE DICTIONARY. Without date. Octavo.
      Herbert has been entirely indebted to Ames for his description of this rare and curious volume of lexicography.   ' A Dictionary in Englyshe and Welshe, moche necessary to all suche Welshemen, as wil spedly learne the Englyshe tongue, thought vnto the kynges maiestie very mete to be sette forthe to the vse of his graces subiectes in Wales : where vnto is prefixed, a litle treatyse of the Englyshe pronunciation of the letters by Wyllyam Salesbury.' Dedicated to king Henry VIII. It has no printer's name, but from the compartment of Whitchurch, Ames supposed it to be his printing. I know of no collection which contains a copy.

1580. PROUERBES OF SALAMON. Without date. Octavo.
      ' The Prouerbes of Salamon, thre chapters of Ecclesiastes, the sixthe chapter of Sapientia, the ix: Chapter of Ecclesiasticus, and certayne Psalmes of Dauid drawen into Metre, by John Hall, & dedicated to Mayster John Bricket of Eltam Esquyre. Jmprintedin Fletestrete,' &c. The late Mr. Baker's Maunsell.

*1582. INTRODUCTION INTO PHISYKE. Without date. Octavo.
      ' An introduction into phisyke, wyth an vniuersal dyet, gathered by Christofer Langton.' EW. in the lower corners within a compartment, at the bottom of which are two boys kneeling on dolphins heads. Dedicated to ' syr Arthure Darcye.' Contains 96 leaves. ' JmprintedCum priuilegiosolum.' In Herbert's collection.

  Preceded by an impression of
   1581. ' Calvine's Epistle of G
OODLY CONSOLATION,' 8vo. as at page 495, ante : in the year 1550. This, however, has neither date nor name of printer : according to Herbert's MS. Mem.

[ p.502 ]   Publications of Hery or Henry Tab. ]
[ opposite p.503 ]  Engraving of the Rev. Richard Farmer, D.D. by T. Hodgetts from the original in Emanuel College, Cambridge. ]

p.503 ]

William Baldwin, printers mark

William Baldwin.

NTHONY WOOD supposes Baldwin or Balwyn to have been a West-country man, that he studied at Oxford, and that after he left that university, he became a schoolmaster and a minister. He appears further to have been one of those scholars who followed printing, in order to forward the reformation. In this character we find him employed by Whitchurch, probably as the corrector of his press, though he modestly styles himself ' seruaunt with Edwarde Whitchurche.' This however seems to have been his employment at first, and chiefly ; yet he appears afterwards to have qualified himself for a compositor.
      As an author, Bale and Pits ascribe some comedies to him. If he wrote any such, they probably were mysteries or moralities, now unknown or lost.*

  Mr. Gilchrist has observed that ' A letter was written on the 28th of Jan. 1552-3 to Sir Thomas Cawarden, the then master of the revels, directing him to furnish Mr. William Baldwyn, who was appointed to set forth a play before the king, on Candlemas day at night, with all necessaries'   Athen. Oxon. vol. i. col. 343.   Edit. Bliss. Mr. Bliss adds p.504 / that in his dedication of the Mirour for Magistrates, 1563, Baldwin particularly notices his having ' been called to another trade of life,' which probably alludes to his becoming a schoolmaster and clergyman.

p.503 ]   He compiled a treatise of moral philosophy, which was printed by Edw. Whitchurch, in 1547, 1550, and without p.504 / date. This was afterwards enlarged by Tho. Palfryman, and went through several editions. His next performance was his metrical version of Solomon's Song, printed by himself, 1549 ; as described more fully below. He wrote also, ' The Funeralles of King Edward the Sixt,' in verse ; but I do not find this printed till 1560.* About the year 1557, Thomas Sackville, first Lord Buckhurst, and afterwards Earl of Dorset, formed the plan of a mirrour for magistrates : but as he had leisure only to finish a poetical preface, and the legend of Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, which was to have been the last of his series, he recommended the completion of the whole to our William Baldwin and George Ferrers.†   Baldwin tells us in his epistle to the nobility, prefixed to the edition 1563, ' This wurke was begun & parte of it prynted in Queen Maries tyme, but hyndred by the Lord Chancellour that then was : neuertheless, through the means of my lorde Stafford, the fyrst parte§ was licenced, and imprynted the fyrst yeare of the raygne of this our most noble and vertuous queene, [Elizabeth] and dedicated to your honours with this preface. Since whych time, although J have been called to another trade of lyfe,|| yet my lorde Stafford hath not ceassed to call vpon me

  Printed by T. Marshe: for a full account of this very scarce work consult the British Bibliographer ; vol. ii. p. 97.
    †   These (says Herbert) seem to have had the management, but several of the legends were composed by other persons also. See a copious account of this book, and the authors, in Warton's Hist. of Eng. Poetry ; vol. iii. p. 209; but more particularly in the Censura Litteraria ; vol. iii. p. 1 : and yet more completely and satisfactorily in Mr. Haslewood's truly valuable and accurate edition of the original work ; 1215, 4to. 2 vols.
    ‡   This must have been Nicholas Heath, archbishop of York, and not Stephen Gardiner, who died in Nov. 1555. In the edition 1578, I find it thus worded, ' but staid by such as then were chief in office.' HERBERT.
    §   The second part seems also to have been written in Q. Mary's time, by this clause towards the conclusion, ' The Frantykes which disable our Queene because she is a woman, & our kynge because he is a straunger, to be our princes,' &c. HERBERT.
    ||   This probably may indicate his entering into the ministry, as mentioned above   In the edition 1578, it is, ' although J wanted such help as before.'

p.505 /

to publishe so muche as J had gotten at other mens hands, so that through his lordshyppes earnest meanes J haue now also set furth another parte, conteyning as little of myne owne as the fyrst parte doth of other mens.'* The preceding is from Herbert ; Ames having had no knowledge of the printing of Baldwin.

  ‘ Containing as much as J could obtaine at the hands of my frends.’ Edit. 1578.

1585. BALADES OF SALOMON. 1549. Quarto.
      ' ¶ The Canticles or Balades of Salomon, phraselyke declared in Englysh Metres, by Williliam Baldwin. [lit.]

‘ ¶ Halleluiah.
    ‘  Syng to the lord sum plesaunt song
          Of matter fresh and newe :
   Vnto his Churche it doth belong
           His prayses to renewe.                         Psalme. cxviii.’
M.D.XLIX.'   In an architectural compartment with the sun on the lintel, supported by pilasters of the Ionic order, and with Edw. Whitchurche's mark or cypher supported by cupids, on the sill. On the back is an address ' To the reader,' which concludes, ' J entend with the leaue of God shortly to set furth a boke of notes, & suche an exposicion of the metaphorical wurdes, as shal serue for a commentary. Jn the meane whyle, the Lorde kepe the, & augment thy knowlege, Amen. Loue and lyue.' Then, ' To the most godly king Edwarde the sixte, &c. Willm Baldwin prayeth God to graunt all thinges that are necessary. ¶ Loue and lyue.' Towards the conclusion, he says, ' Would God that suche songes myght once driue out of office the baudy balades of lecherous loue that commonly are indited & song of idle courtyers in princes & noble mens houses.——J speake not this of these balades alone, but of all other of lyke matter : as psalmes and himnes :—To whiche your Maiesty hath alredy geuen a notable ensample, in causing the psalmes brought in to fine englysh meter, by your godly disposed seruaunt Thomas Sternholde, to be song openly before your grace in the hearyng of all your subiectes. Whiche good example, J beseche God all your subiectes may haue grace to folow : that you may be praysed as the p.506 / paterne of vertue, and in the folowing therof God may be gloried.—Amen. At London the first of June. 1549.' Contains n, in fours, besides four other leaves prefixed. At the end is a table of ' ¶ The interpretacion of the Hebrue wordes.' On the last leaf is his device; a hand holding a caduceus, having at top an open book, over which is a dove with expanded wings, and under it ' LOVE AND LYVE,' in a small compartment. A scroll issues from each of the serpents mouths, the one with ' NOSCE TE IPSVM,' the other with ' NE QVID NIMIS.' Under the serpents is his name, BAL on one side, and WIN on the other, with the middle letter D on the caduceus. The whole contained in a parallelogram, with this motto about it, ' BE WISE AS SERPENTES, AND JNNOCENT AS DOVES. MATTHEW. X.' Beneath all, ' ¶ Jmprinted at London by William Baldwin, seruaunt with Edwarde Whitchurche. Cum priuilegio ad imprimendum solum.'
      A copy was in Herbert's collection. Mr. Bliss informs me that a very fine one is in the library of St. John's College, Oxford : and he remarks, in his edition of Wood's Athen. Oxon. vol. i. col. 341, note 4, that ' this volume of Baldwin's printing is better stopped or pointed, than any book of the same period he had ever yet met with.' Mr. Bliss has also given two stanzas of Baldwin's versification, which shew, says he, that it ' is far more smooth and polished than the generality of scriptural translations we have yet met with.' They describe the address of ' The Spouse to Christe.' The present is, I believe, the only book yet known which owes its existence to the press, or typographical labours, of Baldwin.

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